Typhonium flagelliforme (Lodd.) Blume

 

Last updated: 14 September 2015

Scientific Name

Typhonium flagelliforme (Lodd.) Blume

Synonyms

Arum angulatum Griff., Arum cuspidatum Blume, Arum divaricatum L., Arum flagelliferum Griff., Arum flagelliforme Lodd., Arum ptychiurum Zipp. ex Kunth, Heterostalis flagelliformis (Lodd.) Schott, Typhonium cuspidatum (Blume) Decne., Typhonium cuspidatum var. ptychiurum Blume, Typhonium flagelliferum Griff., Typhonium flagelliforme var. angustissimum Ridl., Typhonium hastiferum Miq., Typhonium incurvatum Blatt. & McCann, Typhonium reinwardtiana Vriese & Miq. ex Miq., Typhonium reinwardtianum de Vriese & Miq., Typhonium sylvaticum Voigt. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia  Keladi tikus [2]
English  Rodent tuber, false shui banxia [3]
China  bian yan li tou jian [3][5], laoshu yu, swi pan sia (Tionghoa) [4];
India   Nelenschena major [3]
Indonesia
 Bira kecil (Malay); ki babi, ileus (Sundanese); trenggiling mentik  
 (Javanese); gofu sepa (Ternate) [5]; daun panta susu  [6]
Thailand  Sa oy (Surin), ta phit kap yao (Loei), wan dakdae (Yasothon) [7]
Vietnam  B[as]n h[aj] roi, c[ur] ch[os]c mo d[af]i [7]
Singapore  Birah taecchil [8]
Pacific  Pantake [3]

Geographical Distributions

Typhonium flagelliforme is found grows in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Burma (Myanmar), the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Indo-China (Cambodia, Vietnam), southern China, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Java, the Lesser Sunda Islands, the Philippines (Luzon), southern New Guinea and Australia (Northern Queensland). [7]

T. flagelliforme occurs in a variety of habitats in the lowlands, from swamp forests to savannas and eucalypt lowlands. [7]

Botanical Description

T. flagilleforme is a member of the Araceae family. It is a tuberous, erect, small, and stemless herb that can grow up to 40 cm tall. It is with depressed-spherical tuber which is up to 2 cm in diametre and with subterranean stolons. [3][7]

Underground part a short, tuberous rhizome, depressed, 1-2 cm. [5]

The leaves are measure 5-25 × 0.5-18 cm, extremely variable, linear, lanceolate, elliptic, or hastate. The petiole is green and measures 15-30 cm. [5]

The inflorescence is appearing alongside leaves, with 5-20 cm thin peduncle. The spathe is convolute at base, green, ovoid, globose, or depressed, and measures 1.5-3.5 × 1.2-2 cm. The spadix is shorter than, as long as, or slightly longer than spathe where the female zone is subcylindric, slightly fusiform, measures 1.5-1.8 cm × 8-10 mm; ovary is pale green, elongate, angulate; sterile zone 1-2 cm, entirely covered with staminodes while the male zone ca. 5 mm; appendix subsessile, 16-17 cm, base swollen and often deeply grooved, apically filiform, erect, horizontal, or downcurved. [5]

The berries are pale greenish, two or three-seeded. [5]

Cultivation

No documentation.

Chemical Constituent

T. flagelliforme has been reported to contain 1-O-β-glucopyranosyl-2-[(2-hydroxyloctadecanoyl) amido]-4,8-octadecadiene-1,3-diol; 9-hexadecanoic acid; 9-octadecenoic acid; 9,12-octadecadienoic acid; beta-daucosterol; beta-sitosterol; coniferin; dodecane; eicosane; heptadecane; hexadecane; hexadecanoic acid; linoleic acid; methyl pyropheophorbide-a; nonadecane; octadecane; octadecanoic acid; pentadecane; pheophorbide-a; pheophorbide-a'; pyropheophorbide-a; tetradecane; tridecane [9][10][11][12]

Plant Part Used

Whole plant, tuber [4]

Traditional Use

T. flagelliforme is believed can be a cure for tumour, swelling, asthma, and as a detoxicant. The Southeast Asian, Indian and Sri Lankan are reported to eat T. flagelliforme leaves wrapped in longan flesh and drink the fresh juice of T. flagelliforme whole plant mixed with honey as a remedy for these health problems. T. flagelliforme is especially popular in Malaysia to treat leukaemia, breast, and cervical cancer. Moreover, they have been used the plant to treat respiratory disorders, particularly cough and asthma. [13] Additionally it has been used to treat breast abscess, hemangioma, spleen lymph tumour, and cuts. [14]

Preclinical Data

Pharmacology

Antihepatotoxic activity

A cerebroside isolated from the ethanol extract of the T. flagelliforme root tuber showed antihepatotoxic activity. [10]

Antitussive and expectorant activity

Aqueous, alcohol and ester extracts of tuber of T. flagelliforme was found to significantly decrease the duration of coughing, eliminates expectorants and delayed the incidence of asthma. They also possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic and sedative activities. [15]

Cytotoxic activity

T. flagelliforme tubers had been promoted commercially as a treatment for various forms of cancer by practitioners of alternative medicine. Studies had shown that there are evidences of cytotoxic activities in various extracts of the tubers. Preliminary studies showed poor cytotoxic activity in the chloroform and hexane extracts of the roots and tubers. However, several fractions of the hexane and dichloromethane extracts were found to significantly inhibit the growth of NCI-H23 non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line. They also significantly inhibit the growth of non-tumorigenic BALB/c 3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line. Four pheophorbide related compounds (pheophorbide-a, pheophorbide-a', pyropheophorbide-a and methyl pyropheophorbide-a) were identified and they showed antiproliferative activities against cancer cells and their activity increased following photoactivation. The general mechanism of actions of these extracts and compounds were apoptosis. There were evidence of DNA fragmentation and arrest of CEMss cells at G0/G1 phase (p<0.05) seen with DCM/F7 (Dichloromethane Fraction 7). Some of the cytological observations include chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage, abnormalities of cristae, membrane blebbing, cytoplasmic extrusions and formation of apoptotic bodies. DCM/F7 fraction increased the cellular levels of caspase-3 and -9 on treated cells and cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol increased gradually as the DCM/F7 concentration increases, which later lead to the subsequent cleavage of PARP in to 85kDa fragments. Amongst the malignancies tested were human lung cancer and leukaemia. [11][12][15][16][17][18]

Toxicities

No documentation

Teratogenic effects

No documentation

Clinical Data

Clinical findings

No documentation

Precautions

No documentation

Side effects

No documentation

Pregnancy/Breast Feeding

No documentation

Age limitation

Neonates / Adolescents

Adverse reaction

T. flagelliforme tuber contains calcium oxalate crystals which can cause irritation to the oral cavity and throat. This can be severe enough to cause obstruction to the respiratory tract. [19

Interaction & Depletion

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Interaction with drug

No documentation

Interaction with other Herbs

No documentation

Contraindications

No documentation

Case Report

No documentation

Dosage

No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing

1056

 

 

 

Figure 1: The line drawing of T. flagelliforme [7]

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver 1.1. Typhonium flagelliforme (Lodd.) Blume. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated on 2012 Mar 23; 2015 Sep 3]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-209474
  2. Mansor M, Boyce PC, Othman AS, Sulaiman B. The Araceae of Peninsular Malaysia. Penang: Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia; 2012.
  3. Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms and etymology; Volume V R-Z. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 2012; p 663.
  4. Wijayakusuma H. Atasi kanker dengan tanaman obat. Jakarta: Niaga Swadaya, 2008; p. 43-44.
  5. Flora of China. Typhonium flagelliforme (Loddiges) Blume [homepage on the Internet]. no date [cited 2015 Jun 18]. Available from:http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200027338
  6. Suryo J. Herbal penyembuh kanker pada perempuan. Yogyakarta:  B First, 2009; p. 114-115.
  7. Typhonium flagelliforme (Lodd.) Blume. In: Lemmens RHMJ, Bunyapraphatsara N, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 12 (3): Medicinal and Poisonous Plants 3. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publication; 2003.
  8. Keng H, Chin HC, Tan HTW. The concise flora of Singapore: Monocotyledons. Volume 2. Singapore: Singapore University Press; 1998. p. 45
  9. Choo CY, Chan KL, Sam TW, Hitotsuyanagi Y, Takeya K. The cytotoxicity and chemical constituents of the hexane fraction of Typhonium flagelliforme (Araceace). J Ethnopharmacol. 2001;77(1):129-31.
  10. Huang P, Karagianis G, Waterman PG. Chemical constituents from Typhonium flagelliforme. Zhong Yao Cai. 2004;27(3):173-175.
  11. Lai CS, Mas RH, Nair NK, Mansor SM, Navaratnam V. Chemical constituents and in vitro anticancer activity of Typhonium flagelliforme (Araceae). J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;127(2):486-494.
  12. Mohan S, Bustamam A, Ibrahim S, Al-Zubairi AS, Aspollah M, Abdullah R, Elhassan MM. In Vitro Ultramorphological Assessment of Apoptosis on CEMss Induced by Linoleic Acid-Rich Fraction from Typhonium flagelliforme Tuber. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011. 2011:421894.
  13. Williams C. Medicinal plants in Australia, Volume 3, Plants, potions and poisons. Australia: Rosenberg Publishing, 2012; p 174-175.
  14. Permadi A . Membuat kebun tanaman obat. Jakarta: Niaga Swadaya, 2008; p. 31-32.
  15. Choo CY, Chan KL, Takeya K, Itokawa H. Cytotoxic activity of Typhonium flagelliforme (Araceae). Phytother Res. 2001;15(3):260-262.
  16. Lai CS, Mas RH, Nair NK, Majid MI, Mansor SM, Navaratnam V. Typhonium flagelliforme inhibits cancer cell growth in vitro and induces apoptosis: an evaluation by the bioactivity guided approach. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;118(1):14-20.
  17. Lai CS, Mas RH, Nair NK, Mansor SM, Navaratnam V. Chemical constituents and in vitro anticancer activity of Typhonium flagelliforme (Araceae). J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;127(2):486-494.
  18. Mohan S, Abdul AB, Abdelwahab SI, Al-Zubairi AS, Sukari MA, Abdullah R, Elhassan Taha MM, Ibrahim MY, Syam S. Typhonium flagelliforme induces apoptosis in CEMss cells via activation of caspase-9, PARP cleavage and cytochrome c release: its activation coupled with G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;131(3):592-600.
  19. Wu H, Zhong LY. Study on irritation of calcium oxalate crystal in Araceae plants. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2008; 33(4):380-384.