Carissa carandas L.

Last updated: 4 August 2016

Scientific Name

Carissa carandas L.

Synonyms

Arduina carandas (L.) Baill., Arduina carandas (L.) K. Schum., Capparis carandas (L.) Burm.f., Carissa salicina Lam., Echites spinosus Burm.f., Jasminonerium carandas (L.) Kuntze, Jasminonerium salicinum (Lam.) Kuntze. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia kerenda, kerandang, berenda [2][3], kerendak [3]
English Karanda, karaunda, Bengal currant [2], Bengal currants, carunda, Christ’s thorn, spiny yellow fruit [3]
China ci huang guo, tz’u huang kuo [3]
India aintarikam, avighnah, bolekarambuka, boronda, cenkala, dodda kalaa, garacha, gotho, heggarjige, kalakai, kalay, kamrdepuli, karamcha, karaandi, karonda, kavali gida, kshiri, peddakalavi, perinkala, supushpa, sushena, timukha, vaka, vanalaya, wakay, yaakudu, yokatumam [3]
Indonesia karandan (Javanese); senggaritan (Timor) [2]; karandas [3]
Thailand naam daeng (Bangkok); manaao ho (Peninsular); naam khee haet (Chiang Mai) [2], nam phrom [3]
Philippines caramba [3]
Vietnam cây sirô [2]
Japan karissa [3].

Geographical Distributions

Carissa carandas is native and cultivated in India, Sri Lanka, Burma and Peninsular Malaysia. Introduced and naturalized in Indonesia and the Philippines. Widely cultivated also in Thailand, Indo-China and East Africa. [2]

Botanical Description

C. carandas is a member of the Apocyanceae family. It is a woody, climbing shrub or small tree with profuse branching. It can grow up to a height of 5m. [4]

The branches have either simple or forked thorns which appear at the leaf axil, measuring up to 5cm long. [4]

The leaves are opposite, broadly ovate to oblong and measuring between 3-7cm long and 1.5-4.0cm wide. The base is broadly cunate to round, short apiculate apex. The leaves are dark green, leathery, glossy on the upper surface, and of lighter green shade and dull on the undersurface. [4]

The inflorescence appears in terminal cymes with 3 fragrant flowers that are 1.5-2.5cm long with minute bracteoles. Both calyx and corolla are synpetalous. The calyx is 5-partite, with very slender, pointed, and hairy segments with many basal glands inside. The corolla is 5-lobed, salverform, the lobes being oblong lanceolate, overlapping to the right, pubescent, and the corolla tube is cylindrical 2cm , dilated at the throat, pubescent, white to pale rose. [4]

The fruit is a drupe, broadly ovoid or ellipsoid, 1.5-2.5 cm long, bluntly pointed, white to pinky-white and pink turning blackish or reddish-purple when ripe. [4]

There are 2-4 small, flat, oblongois, brown seeds embedded in the sour reddish-purple pulp. [4]

Cultivation

No documentation

Chemical Constituent

This plant is known to contain isoamyl alcohol, isobutanol, [b]-caryophyllene, cyaniding 3-rhamnoglucoside, carissin (3 b-hydroxy-27-E-feruloyloxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid), carandoside, (6 S,7R,8R)-7a-[(b-glucopyranosyl)oxy] lyoniresinol, carinol, carissone, carindone, ursolic acid, carissic acid; carissol. [5][6]

Plant Part Used

Fruit, leaf, root. [7]

Traditional Use

The sour fruit is considered astringent, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, thermogenic, appetizer and constipating. [8]

The fruit of C. carandas has been utilized to treat various gastrointestinal conditions. The unripe fruit is given to patients suffering from diarrhea, anorexia and haematemesis, while the ripe fruits have found use in treating flatulence, biliousness and as a stomachic. It has been advocated for use in hyperacidity, poor digestion and even for slimming. The leaves can be used as remedy for diarrhea and oral inflammation. The root is a bitter stomachic and a vermifuge. [8][9]

The ripe of C. carandas fruit posseses cooling effects. It is used to relieve otalgia, burning sensation, skin disorders like scabies and prutitus. The leaf can help relieve syphilitic pain and otalgia too. The juice of the fresh plant or the root paste is used to treat non-healing wounds especially diabetic ulcers. [8][9]

The unripe fruit and the leaf decoction have been employed in the treatment of intermittent fever. The root is used in the treatment of gonorrhea, pyrexia and chronic ulcer. The root is also used in urinary disorder. [8]

Preclinical Data

Pharmacology

Hepatoprotective activity

The ethanol extract of C. carandas roots exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against injuries to the liver induced by Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and paracetamol. This is evidenced by its ability to decrease the activities of serum marker enzymes, bilirubin and lipid peroxidation with a significant increase in levels of uric acid, glutathione, super oxide dismutase, catalase and protein. There was also evidence of strong antioxidant activity which probably accounts for this hepatoprotective activity. [10]

Antidiabetic activity

The methanol extract and its ehtyacetate fraction showed significant ability to lower the elevated blood glucose leves in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The quantum of reduction was by as much as 64.5% in the ethylacetate fraction. Making it more potent than the methanol extract per se. [11]

Toxicity

No documentation

Clinical Data

Clinical findings

No documentation

Precautions

No documentation

Interaction & Depletion

No documentation

Dosage

Dosage Range

No documentation

Poisonous Management

Toxic parts

No documentation

Line drawing

No documentation

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver 1.1. Carissa carandas L. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013. [updated on 2012 Mar 23; cited on 2016 Apr 7]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-34145
  2. Jansen PCM, Jukema J, Oyen LPA, van Lingen TG. Carissa carandas L. In: Verheij EWM, Coronel RE, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 2: Edible fruits and nuts. Wageningen, Netherlands: Pudoc, 1991; p. 323-324.
  3. Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Volume II C-D. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 2012; p. 121.
  4. Lim TK. Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants; Volume 1, Fruits Springer Berlin; 2012. p. 240–245.
  5. Nizami SS, Khan MA, Naim Z, Islam MN Khan, Azeem SW. Biosynthesis Of Carissol and Carissic Acid. Pak J Pharm Sci. 1993;6(1):97-99.
  6. Siddiqui BS, Ghani U, Ali ST, Usmani SB, Begum S. Triterpenoidal constituents of the leaves of Carissa carandas. Nat Prod Res. 2003;17(3):153-158.
  7. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research. Compendium of medicinal plants used in Malaysia. Volume 1. Kuala Lumpur: HMRC IMR, 2002; p. 149.
  8. Lim TK. Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants; Volume 1, Fruits Springer Berlin; 2012. p. 240–245.
  9. Khare CP. Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary Springer Berlin; 2007 pg. 123.
  10. Hegde K, Joshi AB. Hepatoprotective effect of Carissa carandas Linn root extract against CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatic oxidative stress. Indian J Exp Biol. 2009;47(8):660-667.
  11. Itankar PR, Lokhande SJ, Verma PR, Arora SK, Sahu RA, Patil AT. Antidiabetic potential of unripe Carissa carandas Linn. fruit extract. J Ethnopharmacol.2011;135(2):430-433.