Combretum indicum (L.) DeFilipps

Last updated: 4 May 2016

Scientific Name

Combretum indicum (L.) DeFilipps

Synonyms

Kleinia quadricolor Crantz, Mekistus sinensis Lour. ex Gomes Mach., Quisqualis ebracteata P.Beauv., Quisqualis glabra Burm.f., Quisqualis grandiflora Miq., Quisqualis indica L., Quisqualis longiflora C.Presl, Quisqualis loureiroi G.Don, Quisqualis madagascariensis Bojer [Invalid], Quisqualis obovata Schumach. & Thonn., Quisqualis pubescens Burm.f., Quisqualis sinensis Lindl., Quisqualis spinosa Blanco, Quisqualis villosa Roxb., Quisqualis indica var. oxypetala Kurz, Quisqualis indica var. villosa C.B.Clarke [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Wudani, kuikalis, akar dani [2], akar pontianak, akar suloh, ordanie, selimpas, udani [3]
English Rangoon creeper [2], Chinese honeysuckle [4]
China She jin zi, shih chun tzu, shi jun zi [3]
India Madhabilata, Rangoon-ki-bel, rangun, rangunumalli [3]
Indonesia Wudani, kuikalis, akar dani, ceguk [2], Bidani, cekluk, udani [3]
Thailand Lep mue nang [2], a-doning, cha mang, lep mue naang, macheemang, tha mang, thai-mong [3]
Laos Do kung, khua hung, sa mang
Philippines Babi-babe, balitadham, balitadhan, kasumbal, niog-niogan, niogniogan, niugniugan, niyog-niyogan, pinones, sagasi, sagisi, tagisi, talolong, tangalon, tangolan, tangolon, tartaraok, tartarau, tortoraok [3]
Cambodia Dong preah phnom, vor romiet nhi [3]
Vietnam Cay sau rieng, d[aa]y giun, day giun, lang an, qua nac, qu[ar] giun, s[uwr] qu[aa]n [3]
Japan Indo-shikunshi [3]
Nicaragua Santa Cecilia [3]
Panama Karate del humano [3]
Yoruba Ogan funfun, ogan igbo [3]

Geographical Distributions

Combretum indicum is native to Southeast Asia [2]. This plant can be found in China, India, Laos and Myanmar. [3]

Botanical Description

C. indicum is a shrub from the Combretaceae family. [1] This scandent, slender and scrambling   plant has many branches. [3]

The leaves are massive foliage and woody vine. [3]

The flowers are sweetly aromatic, arching down, and compact terminal spike pubescent. The calyx is a 5-lobed tube. The petals are lanceolate in shape, white to pink color. The ovary is villous 5 angled cylindrical-fusiform. [3]

The fruit is dark dry leathery capsule. [3]

The seed is oily and ripe. [3]

Cultivation

No documentation.

Chemical Constituent

C. indicum is reported to contain 1-desgalloyleugeniin; 1,6-di-O-galloyl-b-D-glucose; 2,3-di-o-galloyl-D-glucose; 2,3-(S)-HHDP-4-O-galloyl-D-glucose; 2,3-(S)-HHDP-6-O-galloyl-D-glucose; 2,3-(S)-HHDPA6-di-O-galloyl-D-glucose; 3,4-di-O-galloyl-D-glucose; 4,6-di-O-galloyl-D-glucose; 5-desgalloylstachyurin; arachidic acid; brevifolin carboxylic acid; castalagin; casuariin;citric acid; ellagic acid; eugeniin; flavogallonic acid; L-asparagine; L-proline; linoleic acid; malic acid; oleic acid; palmitic acid; pelargonidin-3-glucoside; pedunculagin; potassium quisqualate; punicalagin; punicalin; pyvidine; quisqualic acid; quisqualin A; quisqualin B; succinic acid; sucrose; fructose; rutin; stearic acid; trigonelline. [5][6][7]

Plant Part Used

Fruit, seed, leaves [5]

Traditional Use

In traditional Indian medicine, the roasted ripe seed C. indicumwere given to treat diarrhoea and fever; and the macerated seed in oil were applied for parasitic skin disease. The leaves decoction was prescribed to treat abdominal pain. [5]

In traditional Chinese medicine, the C. indicum is used in combination with cortex part of Melia azedarach L. and semen of Areca catechu L. to treat pain in the abdomen due to round worms. It also used with radix of Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipsch., rhizome Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz., Hordeum vulgare L. and semen of arecae catechu to treat gan accumulation, emaciation with distension in the abdomen, yellow facial complexion and dry hair. [6]

Preclinical Data

Pharmacology

Neuromuscular junction excitant activity

Quisqualic acid is an amino acid obtained from the seeds of C. indicum studies on effects on the neuromuscular junction of crayfish. They found that quisqualic acid could induce desensitization of the receptor to L-glutamic acid. [8]

Cytotoxic activity

In a screening activity for active anticancer compounds derived from traditional Chinese medicine and Chinese material medica, studies reported that 25-O-acetyl-23,24-dihydro-cucurbitacin F from C. indicum showed significant cytotoxic activity. [9]

Toxicity

The minimum lethal dosage of water soluble extract C. indicum for subacuteneous injection in mice is 20 g/kg. The single use of C. indicum decoction in mice with an LD50 in excess 4 g/kg showed extremely low toxicity. [6]

Clinical Data

Clinical findings

No documentation

Precautions

C. indicum should be taken in small amount. Large amount intake or with tea can cause hiccups, dizziness, vomiting, pain in the abdomen and diarrhoea. The symptoms will disappear spontaneously after intake of the herb disease. [6][10]

An allergic reaction can cause skin rashes with or without itching, painful swelling of ankles and increase body temperature. [10]

The C. indicum should be takeon empty stomach for 2-3 days and the stir-fried herbs should be chewed well before swallowing.

Side effects

No documentation

Pregnancy/Breast Feeding

No documentation

Age limitation

No documentation

Adverse reaction

No documentation

Interaction & Depletion

No documentation

Interaction with drug

No documentation

Interaction with other Herbs

No documentation

Contraindications

No documentation

Case Report

No documentation

Dosage

Dosage Range

C. indicum is taken in doses 6 – 10g. The dosage for the adults is 10-20 seeds per day and for children 1-1.5 seeds per day for each year of age with not more 20 seeds per day. [6][10]

Most Common Dosage

No documentation

Standardisation

No documentation

Poisonous Management

No documentation

Line drawing

No documentation

References

  1. The Plant List. Combretum indicum (L.) DeFilipps.Ver 1.1. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated on 2012 March 23; cited on 2016 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-2732680
  2. Warren W. Handy pocket guide to tropical flowers. Hong Kong. Turtle Publishing, 2004. p. 19
  3. Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of plant names: common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms and etymology. Volume IV M-Q. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press LLC; 1999 p. 805.
  4. Hanelt P, Buttner R. Manfeld’s encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops: (except ornamentals). Germany: Springer Science & Business Media, 2001; p.976.
  5. Khare CP. Indian medicinal plants: an illustrated dictionary. New York: Springer Science & Business Media, 2008; p. 533.
  6. Li X. Chinese material medica: combinations and applications. St. Albans, Hertfordshire: Elsevier Health Sciences, 2002; p.309.
  7. Lin TC, Ma Y T, Wu J, et al. Tannins and related compounds from Quisqualis indica. Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society. 1997;44(2):151-155.
  8. Shinozaki H, Izumi S. A new potent excitant, quisqualic acid: effects on crayfish neuromuscular junction. Neuropharmacology. 1974;13(7):665-672.
  9. Efferth T, Kahl S, Paulus K, et al. Phytochemistry and pharmacogenomics of natural products derived from traditional Chinese medicine and Chinese materia medica with activity against tumor cells. Molecular cancer therapeutics. 2008;7(1):152-161.
  10. Hempen, C-H, Fischer T. A material medica for Chinese medicine: plants, minerals and animal products. Munich: Elsevier Health Sciences, 2009; p.868.