Crateva religiosa G.Forst.

Last updated: 13 Apr 2016

Scientific Name

Crateva religiosa G.Forst.

Synonyms

Crateva macrocarpa Kurz [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Kepayan, kemantu, dangla [1], dala, kepayang ayer, marsh dalur [2]
English Sacred barma [1], garlic pear, spider tree, temple plant, three-leaves caper [2]
China E jiao mu ye, yu ma [2]
India Ajapavaruna, asmarighna, bama, ganda, cinnavulimidi, holapoh, peddamogalingam, tikta-shaka, urumana, usiki, varun chhal, varunah, vitusi, voolemeri [2]
Indonesia Jaranan (Javanese); barunday (Sundanese); sibaluak (Sumatra) [1]
Thailand Kum-bok, kum nam [1]
Laos Kumz [1]
Myanmar Hkan-tak, ka-tak, kadat [2]
Philippines Salingbobog (Tagalog); balai-lamok (Iloko); banugan (Bisaya) [1]
Cambodia Tonliëm [1]
Vietnam b[us]n thi[ee]u, b[us]n l[owj] [1]
Japan Gyo-boku [2].

Geographical Distributions

Crateva religiosa is distributed from India throughout South and Southeast Asia to Micronesia and Polynesia, wild and occasionally cultivated. Itis also frequent in Borneo, New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. [1]

C. religiosa is often found in periodically inundated forest, usually below 100 m altitude, but also occurring up to 700 m altitude. [1]

Botanical Description

C.  religiosa is a member of the Capparaceae family. It is a tree measure 5-15(-30) m tall, grey in colour of  bark, yellowish-white wood but turns light-brown in colour when old. [1]

The petiole is measure  (3.5-)6.5-10 cm long where on sterile twigs are often much longer. The stipules are subulate, and measure about 0.5-1 mm long. The leaflets are very variable, asymmetrically oblong to ovate in shape and with a size of measuring about 8.5-27 cm x 3-10.5 cm. The central leaflet is oblong to obovate in shape, narrowly decurrent base, shortly acuminate apex, often mucronulate, with 7-11 pairs of veins, subsessile and thin-herbaceous. [1]

The flowers are measure about 2-14, 3-5(-14) cm long rachis where the lower flowers are inserted above the axil of normal leaves while the others are subtended by an early caducous bract. They are 10 mm x 1-1.5 mm, with measuring 2-9 cm long pedicels, ovate sepals, obtuse to acute in shape, measuring about 4-7 mm x 1.5-3 mm while the petals are broadly ovate to elliptical in shape, measure about 2-4 cm x 1-2.3 cm and with measure about 5-20 mm long of narrowed base. The stamens are (10-)13-18(-30), measuring 4.5-11.5 cm long filaments, pink or purple in colour towards the top, the measure of anthers is about 2.5-6 mm long  and measure about 4-7 cm long gynophores. [1]

The fruit berry is slightly spherical to subovoid in shape, measuring about  6-15 cm x 5.5-9.5 cm and it is whitish-grey in colour. The seed is dorsally keeled and sparsely to densely tuberculate. [1]

Cultivation

No documentation.

Chemical Constituent

No documentation.

Plant Part Used

No documentation.

Traditional Use

No documentation.

Preclinical Data

No documentation.

Clinical Data

No documentation.

Dosage

No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing

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Figure 1: The line drawing of C. religiosa [1]

References

  1. Schmelzer GH. Crateva religiosa J.G. Forster. In: van Valkenburg JLCH, Bunyapraphatsara N, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 12(2): Medicinal and poisonous plants 2. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers, 2001; p. 190-191.
  2. Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Volume II C-D. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 2012. p. 464.