Lavandula latifolia Medik.

Last updated: 04 May 2016

Scientific Name

Lavandula latifolia Medik.

Synonyms

Lavandula angustifolia Moench [Illegitimate], Lavandula cladophora Gand., Lavandula decipiens Gand., Lavandula erigens Jord. & Fourr., Lavandula guinardii Gand., Lavandula hybrida E.Rev. ex Briq. [Illegitimate], Lavandula inclinans Jord. & Fourr., Lavandula interrupta Jord. & Fourr., Lavandula major Garsault [Invalid], Lavandula ovata Steud., Lavandula spica Cav. [Illegitimate] [1]

Vernacular Name

English Spike lavender [2][3]
France Aspic, grande lavande, lavande mâle, spic [2][3]
Italy Lavande latifoglia, spigot, spigone [3]
Germany Spik [3]
Spain Esplíego [3]
Russia Lavanda aspic [3].

Geographical Distributions

Lavandula latifolia is naturally distributed in South-Western Europe from Portugal to Dalmatia. It is occasionally cultivated in southern (Southern France, Spain, Italy) and Central Europe as an essential oil plant. [3]

Botanical Description

L. latifolia is a member of the family Lamiaceae [1]. It is a subshrub that has densely stellate tomentulose branches [4].

The leaves are clustered at branch bases, widely spaced apically, narrowly lanceolate to linear, 2-4 cm × 2-5 mm, densely stellate tomentulose, base attenuate to petiole, margin entire and revolute, and has obtuse to acute apex. [4]

The verticillasters are 4-6-flowered, lax, 7 or 8 in a terminally interrupted 15-25 cm pedunculate spike with 17-30 cm peduncle and linear bracts, almost as long as corolla. The bracteoles are linear and shorter than calyx. The calyx is tubular, straight, 5-6 mm, densely stellate tomentose, 13-veined, 5-toothed with posterior tooth that conspicuously larger than other 4 inconspicuous teeth. The corolla is 1.0-1.1 cm, densely tomentose with straight upper lip, divaricate lobes almost at a right angle, ovate, apically obtuse and subcircular lobes of lower lip. [4]

Cultivation

No documentation.

Chemical Constituent

No documentation.

Plant Part Used

Flowers, leaves, seeds. [5]

Traditional Use

L. latifolia is famous for its oil and known as spike lavender oil. Lavender oil is traditionally used to relieve toothache, neuralgia, sprains and rheumatism. It also known as a powerful stimulant to treat palsy and similar disorders or debility, hysteria, and lack of nerve power problems. The spirituous tincture of the dried leaves or seeds given prudently can cures the hysteric fits. L. latifolia given inwardly or applied as a poultice topically can be a cure for serpents, mad-dogs and other venomous creature bites. [5]

Furthermore, lavender oil rubbed externally can stimulate the paralysed limbs. It can be mixed with ¾ spirit of turpentine or spirit of wine to make the famous oleum spicae, formerly much celebrated for curing old sprains and stiff joints. Lavender packed in bags is used as a fomentation by applying it hot to relieve local pains. [5]

Essential oil of L. latifolia or its spirit demonstrated restorative and tonic effects against faintness, palpitations of a nervous sort, spasms, weak giddiness, and colic. The smell and taste could improve appetite, dissipates flatulence and raises the spirits. A few drops of lavender essence in a hot footbath are reported could get rid of the fatigue. [5]

Arabs used the L. latifolia flowers as an expectorant and antispasmodic. [5]

Preclinical Data

Pharmacology

Antimicrobial activity

In a study which examined the antimicrobial actions of several essential oils, L. latifolia showed some antimicrobial activity. These essential oils were tested against Salmonella EnteritidisSalmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Yersinia enterocolitica, Shigella flexneri, Listeria monocytogenes serovar 4b, and Staphylococcus aureus. [6]

Antibacterial activity

Many different species of Lavandula, including L. latfolia were examined for potential antibacterial properties. All species showed some inhibitory effects against methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant S. aureus. [7]

Antioxidant activity

L. latifolia showed in vitro antioxidant activity among the several extracts of Lamiaceae family examined for antioxidant and antirhizopus activity. [8]

Toxicity

No documentation.

Clinical Data

No documentation.

Dosage

No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing

No documentation.

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Lavandula latifolia Medik. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 23; cited 2016 Apr 26]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-109033
  2. Ong HC. Lavandula L. In: Oyen LPA, Nguyen Xuan Dung, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 19: Essential-oil plants. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher, 1999; p. 117-123.
  3. Hanelt P, editor. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops: (except ornamentals). Berlin: Springer, 2001; p. 1964.
  4. Flora of China. Lavandula latifolia Villars. [homepage on the Internet]. No date [cited 2016 May 04]. Available from: http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200019758
  5. Lis-Balchan M. Aromatherapy science: A guide for healthcare professionals. London: Pharmaceutical Press, 2006; p. 315-316.
  6. Rota C, Carramiñana JJ, Burillo J, Herrera A. In vitro antimicrobial activity of essential oils from aromatic plants against selected foodborne pathogens. J Food Prot. 2004;67(6):1252-1256.
  7. Roller S, Ernest N, Buckle J. The antimicrobial activity of high-necrodane and other lavender oils on methicillin-sensitive and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA). J Altern Complement Med. 2009;15(3):275-279.
  8. López V, Akerreta S, Casanova E, García-Mina JM, Cavero RY, Calvo MI. In vitro antioxidant and antirhizopus activities of Lamiaceae herbal extracts. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2007;62(4):151-155.