Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton

Last updated: 17 Aug 2016

Scientific Name

Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton  

Synonyms

Oxycoca macrocarpa (Aiton) Raf., Oxycoccus macrocarpus (Aiton) Pers., Schollera macrocarpa (Aiton) Steud., Schollera macrocarpos (Aiton) Britton [1]

Vernacular Name

English Cranberry, large cranberry, American cranberry [2]
France Canneberge, airelle à gros fruits, gros atocas (Îles de la Madeleine: grains, pommes de prée) [2].

Geographical Distributions

No documentation.

Botanical Description

Vaccinium macrocarpon  is a member of the Ericaceae family. [1] It is an evergreen, creeping, and mat-forming plant [2].

Cultivation

No documentation.

Chemical Constituent

Acetone extract of V. macrocarpon fresh fruits has been reported to contain triterpenoids derivatives (e.g. ursolic acid, cis-3-O-phydroxycinnamoylursolic acid, and trans- 3-O-p-hydroxycinnamoylursolic acid), flavonoids (e.g. quercetin, 3,5,7,3′,4′-pentahydroxyflavonol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5,7,3′,4′- pentahydroxyflavonol-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (hyperin), and 3,5,7,3′,4′- pentahydroxyflavonol-3-O-α-L-arabinofuranoside), sterols (e.g. β-sitosterol and β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucoside), benzoic acid β-D-glucopyranoside, benzoic acid α-L-arabinopyranosyl (1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside, benzoic acid, 1-[3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoate]-β-D-glucopyranoside, 3-methoxy-4- hydroxybenzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2(R)-hydroxybutanedioic acid 1-methyl ester, 2(R)-hydroxybutanedioic acid, quinic acid, maleic acid monoethyl ester, and 5-ethyl-6-[3-ethyl-5-((Z)-pent-1-enyl)-5,6-dihydro-4H-pyran-2-ylperoxy]-3-[(Z)-pent-1-enyl]-3, 4-dihydro-2H-pyran. [3]

Plant Part Used

No documentation.

Traditional Use

V. macrocarpon or cranberryis famously known used for urinary tract problems especially urinary tract infection. It also used for kidney disorders, to promote urination, and to treat bladder infection and inflammation in women. [2]

Preclinical Data

Pharmacology

Urinary tract anti-infection activity

V. macrocarpon has been used to prevent kidney stones, as well as to remove unwanted toxins from the body [4]. As early as the 1840's, German researchers were examining the connection between using the V. macrocarpon and the incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI). It has been thought that V. macrocarpon worked for UTI by acidifying the urine, preventing the bacteria from growing. In 1984, it has been reported that V. macrocarpon does not acidify the urine sufficiently to produce an antibacterial effect in the bladder [5]. Instead, V. macrocarpon prevented E. coli from adhering to the cells lining the bladder wall, thus preventing infection [6][7]. Research has reported that this property may be due to a glycoprotein found in the V. macrocarpon fruit. Further research reported that V. macrocarpon was a potent inhibitor of the most virulent strains of E. coli from attaching to the bladder wall [8][9]. It has been reported that other members of the Vaccinium genus have similar properties, including bilberry and blueberry. The antiadhesive qualities of V. macrocarpon may prevent E. coli from colonizing in the gut as well [9]. V. macrocarpon was also reported to inhibit the adhesion of H. pylori to human gastric mucus and to human erythrocytes [10]. An in vitro study reported some antibacterial activity of V. macrocarpon juice [11].

Antioxidant activity

Other laboratory studies support the antioxidant capabilities of the flavonoid constituents in V. macrocarpon [12][13][14]. V. macrocarpon juice may increase plasma antioxidant levels reducing the risk of heart disease [15]

Cardiovascular diseases

A number of studies support the use of polyphenols, including those found in V. macrocarpon, in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) by increasing the resistance of LDL to oxidation, inhibiting platelet aggregation, reducing blood pressure, and via other antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. [16]

Anti-matrix metalloproteinases activity

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a major role in periodontal tissue destruction. An in vitro study found that V. macrocarpon proanthocyanidins inhibited the production of MMPs in a concentration-dependent manner. [17]

Anticancer activity

V. macrocarpon extracts have also been reported in laboratory studies to be effective against various cancer cell lines, including paraplatin-resistant ovarian cancer, breast, colon, prostate, and lung cancer cell lines. [18][19]

Toxicity

No documentation.

Clinical Data

Clinical findings

Urinary tract anti-infection activity

A randomized controlled study in older women found that the activity of V. macrocarpon against UTI was as effective as trimethoprim [20]. A small, placebo controlled study in 188 pregnant women found there is a protective effect of V. macrocarpon ingestion against asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections in pregnancy [21]. The findings of the Cochrane Collaboration support the potential use of V. macrocarpon products in the prophylaxis of recurrent UTIs in young and middle-aged women [22]. Also, a small, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial in 47 individuals with spinal cord injury found that V. macrocarpon tablets reduced the incidence of UTI in those with neurogenic bladder [23].

Proanthocyanidins found in V. macrocarpon have been reported in laboratory studies to inhibit P-fimbriae synthesis and induce a bacterial deformation, on both antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coliV. macrocarpon may prevent bacteria from adhering to the uroepithelium of the bladder, thereby blocking the ability of E. coli to infect the urinary mucosa. [24]

Antioxidant activity

A recent human study reported that V. macrocarpon juice is an effective antioxidant. The authors suggested that the antioxidant activity may be in part due to the relatively high vitamin C content. [25] 

A small study in Type 2 diabetics taking oral glucose-lowering agents found V. macrocarpon supplements to be effective in reducing atherosclerotic cholesterol profiles, including LDL cholesterol (although oxidized LDL was not affected) and total cholesterol levels, as well as total HDL/ cholesterol ratio [26]. The study also reported a neutral effect on glycaemic control. Another clinical study found that V. macrocarpon did decrease oxidized LDL and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin concentrations in men [27].

A small clinical study in children found that use of V. macrocarpon juice and Lactobacillus sp. was effective in reducing the number of H. pyloribacteria in the gut [28]. Another clinical study found that V. macrocarpon in conjunction with PPIs and antibiotics helped eradicate H. pylori from the gut more effectively than the drugs alone [29].

Precautions

V. macrocarpon juice may contain varying amounts of oxalate, a common component of kidney stones. Use with caution in individuals prone to nephrolithiasis. Do not use in individuals currently with nephrolithiasis. [30]

Side effects

Large doses of V. macrocarpon juice may cause mild diarrhoea and gastric upset. [31]

Pregnancy/Breast Feeding

Studies report V. macrocarpon is safe to use during pregnancy and breastfeeding, but consult a physician first. [32]

Age limitation

No documentation.

Adverse reaction

No documentation.

Interaction & Depletion

No documentation.

Interaction with drug

Warfarin

V. macrocarpon has been reported in laboratory studies to affect drugs metabolized by CYP3A, including warfarin, nifedipine (Procardia) and midazolam (Versed) [33][34]. However, one small clinical study found no effect on coagulation vs. placebo [35].

Interaction with other Herbs

No documentation.

Contraindications

No documentation.

Dosage

No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing

No documentation.

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 23; cited 2016 Aug 10]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-2457729
  2. Small E, Catling PM. Canadian medicinal crops. Ottawa: NRC Research Press, 1999; p. 161-163.
  3. He X, Liu RH. Cranberry phytochemicals: Isolation, structure elucidation, and their antiproliferative and antioxidant activities. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54(19):7069-7074.
  4. Schmidt DR, Sobota AE. An examination of the anti-adherence activity of cranberry juice on urinary and nonurinary bacterial isolates. Microbios. 1988;55(224-225):173-181.
  5. Zafriri D, Ofek I, Adar R, Pocino M, Sharon N. Inhibitory activity of cranberry juice on adherence of type 1 and type P fimbriated Escherichia coli to eucaryotic cells. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989;33(1):92-98.
  6. Guay DR. Cranberry and urinary tract infections. Drugs. 2009;69(7):775-807.
  7. Liu Y, Gallardo-Moreno AM, Pinzon-Arango PA, Reynolds Y, Rodriguez G, Camesano TA. Cranberry changes the physicochemical surface properties of E. coli and adhesion with uroepithelial cells. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2008;65(1):35-42.
  8. Foo LY, Lu Y, Howell AB, et al. The structure of cranberry proanthocyanidins which inhibit adherence of uropathogenic p-fimbriated Escherichia coli in vitro. Phytochemistry. 2000;54(2):173-181.
  9. Ofek I, oldhar J, Zafriri D, Lis H, Adar R, Sharon N. Anti-Escherichia coli adhesion activity of cranberry and blueberry juices. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1996;408:179-183.
  10. Burger O, Ofek I, Tabak M, Weiss EI, Sharon N, Neeman I. A high molecular mass constituent of cranberry juice inhibits Helicobacter pylori adhesion to human gastric mucus. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2000;29(4):295-301.
  11. Magariños HL, Sahr C, Selaive SD, Costa ME, Figuerola FE, Pizarro OA. In vitro inhibitory effect of Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpom Ait.) juice on pathogenic microorganisms. Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. May-Jun 2008;44(3):333-336.
  12. Wang SY, Jiao H. Scavenging capacity of berry crops on superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, and singlet oxygen. J Agric Food Chem. 2000;48(11):5677-5684.
  13. Yan X, Murphy BT, Hammond GB, Vinson JA, Neto CC. Antioxidant activities and antitumor screening of extracts from cranberry fruit (Vaccinium macrocarpon). J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50(21):5844-5849.
  14. Vinson JA, Bose P, Proch J, Al Kharrat H, Samman N. Cranberries and cranberry products: powerful in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo sources of antioxidants. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56(14):5884-5891.
  15. Vinson, JA, Kharrat HA, Samman N. Single-dose and supplementation studies with cranberry juice relevant to its role in heart disease as an antioxidant. Am Chem Soc. New Orleans. 2003
  16. McKay DL, Blumberg JB. Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Nutr Rev. 2007;65(11):490-502.
  17. La VD, Howell AB, Grenier D. Cranberry proanthocyanidins inhibit MMP production and activity. J Dent Res. 2009;88(7):627-632.
  18. Singh AP, Singh RK, Kim KK, Satyan KS, Nussbaum R, Torres M, Brard L, Vorsa N. Cranberry proanthocyanidins are cytotoxic to human cancer cells and sensitize platinum-resistant ovarian cancer cells to paraplatin. Phytother Res. 2009;23(8):1066-1074.
  19. Neto CC, Amoroso JW, Liberty AM. Anticancer activities of Cranberry phytochemicals: an update. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008;52 (Suppl 1):S18-27.
  20. McMurdo ME, Argo I, Phillips G, Daly F, Davey P. Cranberry or trimethoprim for the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections? A randomized controlled trial in older womenJ Antimicrob Chemother. 2009;63(2):389-395.
  21. Wing DA, Rumney PJ, Preslicka CW, Chung JH. Daily cranberry juice for the prevention of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy: A randomized, controlled pilot study. J Urol. 2008;180(4):1367-1372.
  22. Jepson RG, Williams G, Craig JC. Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 23;(1):CD001321.
  23. Hess MJ, Hess PE, Sullivan MR, Nee M, Yalla SV. Evaluation of cranberry tablets for the prevention of urinary tract infections in spinal cord injured patients with neurogenic bladder. Spinal Cord.  2008;46(9):622-626.
  24. Pérez-López FR, Haya J, Chedraui P. Vaccinium macrocarpon: an interesting option for women with recurrent urinary tract infections and other health benefits. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2009;35(4):630-639.
  25. Pedersen CB, Kyle J, Jenkinson AM, Gardner PT, McPhail DB, Duthie GG. Effects of blueberry and cranberry juice consumption on the plasma antioxidant capacity of healthy female volunteers. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000;54(5):405-408.
  26. Lee IT, Chan YC, Lin CW, Lee WJ, Sheu WH. Effect of cranberry extracts on lipid profiles in subjects with Type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med. 2008;25(12):1473-1477.
  27. Ruel G, Pomerleau S, Couture P, Lemieux S, Lamarche B, Couillard C. Low-calorie cranberry juice supplementation reduces plasma oxidized LDL and cell adhesion molecule concentrations in men. Br J Nutr. 2008;99(2):352-359.
  28. Gotteland M, Andrews M, Toledo M, et al. Modulation of Helicobacter pylori colonization with cranberry juice and Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 in children. Nutrition. 2008;24(5):421-426.
  29. Shmuely H, Yahav J, Samra Z, et al. Effect of cranberry juice on eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients treated with antibiotics and a proton pump inhibitor. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007;51(6):746-751.
  30. Terris MK, Issa MM, Tacker JR. Dietary supplementation with cranberry concentrate tablets may increase the risk of nephrolithiasis. Urology. 2001;57(1):26-29.
  31. Behrman RE, Kliegman RM, Jenson HB. Nelson textbook of paediatrics. 16th ed. Philadelphia: W B Saunders Company, 2000; p. 2304.
  32. Dugoua JJ, Seely D, Perri D, Mills E, Koren G. Safety and efficacy of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) during pregnancy and lactation. Can J Clin Pharmacol. 2008 Winter;15(1):e80-86.
  33. Ngo N, Yan Z, Graf TN, et al. Identification of a cranberry juice product that inhibits enteric CYP3A-mediated first-pass metabolism in humans. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009;37(3):514-522.
  34. Lilja JJ, Backman JT, Neuvonen PJ. Effects of daily ingestion of cranberry juice on the pharmacokinetics of warfarin, tizanidine, and midazolam--probes of CYP2C9, CYP1A2, and CYP3A4. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2007;81(6):833-839.
  35. Ansell J, McDonough M, Zhao Y, Harmatz JS, Greenblatt DJ. The absence of an interaction between warfarin and cranberry juice: A randomized, double-blind trial. J Clin Pharmacol. 2009;49(7):824-830.