Curcuma mangga Valeton & Zijp

Last updated: 04 Nov 2016

Scientific Name

Curcuma mangga Valeton & Zijp [1]

Synonyms

No documentation [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Kunyit mangga, temu mangga [2], temu pauh [2][3]
India Manga injee [2]
Indonesia Temu manga, temu poh, temu bajangan, temu lalab (Javanese); koneng joho, koneng lalab, koneng pare (Sundanese). [2][3]
Thailand Khamin Khao [2]
Japan Temu mangga [4][5].

Geographical Distributions

The species is indigenous to Malesia and cultivates in Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia [6]. This rhizomatous herb is found in Asia, and throughout the Malay Archipelago [3].

It occurs wild in the teak forest. It thrives in fertile, moist soils rich in organic matter, in full sun or partial shade, from near sea level to 1000 m. [2]

Botanical Description

C. mangga is a member of the Zingiberaceae family. The rhizome is pale dull yellowish on the outside and pale lemon or sulphur yellow on the inside. The young parts are white in colour with a distinct mango aroma. Primary tuber is ovoid, 6x4 cm. Branching in all directions are close and cylindric in shape about 1.5 cm thick. The leaves are long, green in colour and sometimes with a purple splash in the centre. The inflorescence appears outside of the leaves. The terminal bracts are violet red, median bracts green while the lower bracts are white [8].The rhizome is commonly sold in markets as seasoning for food and to a lesser extent, as a stomachic. It forms part of the mixture administered for arresting continuous fever. The plant is also prescribed for treating chest pains and general debility [3].

Cultivation

No documentation

Chemical Constituent

C. mangga has been reported to contain 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4,6-heptatrien-3-one, β-sitosterol, p-hydsoxycinnamic acid, (E)-labda-8(17),12-dien-15,16-dial, (E)-15,16-bisnor-labda-8(17),11-dien-13-on, bis-demethoxycurcumin, calcaratarin A, curcumanggoside, curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, labda-8(17),12-diene-15,16-dial, myrcene, scopoletin, zerumin A, zerumin B. [9][10][11]

Plant Part Used

Rhizome. [3][7]

Traditional Use

The rhizome of C. mangga is believed to be useful for stomachache, backache, wounds, skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma and sprains. It is carminative, stomachic, appetite stimulant, and antipyretic, antidote for poisoning, diuretic and antiobesity. [7]

Preclinical Data

Pharmacology

Antiallergic activity.

The aqueous extract of the rhizome of C. mangga exhibited anti-allergic activity (IC50 = 36.1 µg/mL) against antigen-induced beta-hexosaminidase release as a marker of degranulation in RBL-2h3 cells. [12]

Anti-inflammatory activity.

A preliminary study showed that the ethanol extracts of C. mangga rhizome and its fractions (i.e. chloroform and hexane) possessed anti-inflammatory activity when tested against nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release using RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. A bioassay-guided fractionation done subsequently isolated demethoxycurcumin (1) from the chloroform fraction and 15,16-bisnorlabda-8(17),11-dien-13- one (2) and (E)-15,15-diethoxylabda-8(17), 12-dien-16-al (3) from the n-hexane fraction. Compound 3 exhibited the highest activity against NO release with an IC50 value of 9.4 µM, followed by compound 1 (IC50 = 12.1 µM) and compound 2 (IC50 = 30.3 µM) meanwhile compound 1 possessed the highest PGE2 release activity (IC50 = 4.5 µM), followed by 3 (IC50 = 35.3 µM) and compound 2 (IC50 = 42.5 µM). It was found that compounds 1 and 3 downregulated the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2-(COX-2) in a dose dependent manner, where compound 2 has an effect only on iNOS mRNA. [13]

Ethanol extract of C. mangga rhizome (CME) and its fractions (i.e. aqueous, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and hexane) (150 mg/kg) administered orally to rats for duration of four hours showed significant reduction in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema following the order of inhibition activity by the fractions: chloroform fraction > hexan fraction > ethyl acetate fraction > CME > aqueous fraction. In addition, CME and chloroform fraction (0.5 mg/ear) administered topically to croton oil-induced mouse ear edema showed highest inhibition at 53.97% and 50.29%, respectively than other fractions. [14]

Immunomodulatory activity.

C. mangga is amongst the 20 selected medicinal plants studied for their effects on the respiratory burst of human whole blood, isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMSs) and isolated mice macrophages using lumino/lucigenin-based chemiluminescence assay. The methanolextract of C. mangga showed strong inhibitory activity on lucigenin-amplified oxidative burst on PMNs with IC50 value of 0.9 µm/m. [15]

Antimicrobial activity.

The essential oil extracted from the rhizome C. mangga showed promising antimicrobial activity by inhibiting the growth of all tested microorganism compared to C. aeruginosa and Zinggiber cassumunar tested using disc diffusion method indicated by zone of inhibition (ZOI), minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) and compared with the control tetracycline (Tet) or nystatin (Nys). The result showed that C. mangga has antibacterial and antifungal towards the growth of Bacillus cereus (ZOI: 13.5±0.7 mm, MIC 11.1 µL/mL, MBC: 1.2 µL/mL, Tet: 22.5±0.7 mm, 0.002 mg/mL, 0.12 mg/mL, respectively), Staphylococcus aureus (ZOI : 10.0±0.4 mm, MIC: 1.2 µL/mL, MBC: 1.2 µL/mL; Tet 17.0±0.0 mm; 0.010 mg/mL, 0.12 mg/mL respectively), Escherichia coli (ZOI: 7.0±0.7 mm: Tet 13.3±0.4 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ZOI: 9.0+-0.0 mm; Tet: 23.0±0.0 mm ), Candida albicans (ZOI: 10.3±0.4 mm, MIC: 3.7 µL/mL, MBC: 3.7 µL/mL; Nys: 10.3±0.4 mm, 0.120 mg/mL, 0.37 mg/mL respectively), and Cyptoccoccus neoformans (ZOI 14.8±0.4 mm, MIC: 0.1 µL/mL, MBC: 0.1 µL/mL;Tet : 18.00±0.0 mm, 0.370 mg/mL, 0.37 mg/mL respectively) at varying degrees of inhibition. [16]

Antioxidant activity.

Methanol and water extracts C. mangga leaves (CMM and CMW) exhibited significant antioxidant activities at 100 ug/mL as evidenced by its ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation (CMM: 78%; CMW: 63%), cyclooxygenase enzymes-1 (COX-1)(CMM: 55%; CMW: 33%) and COX-2 (CMM: 65%; CMW: 55%). [17]

Anticancer activity.

It was found that the methanol and a water extract of the C. mangga were able to inhibit the growth of human tumour cell lines by 0-46%. [17]

Toxicity

No documentation.

Clinical Data

No documentation.

Dosage

No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing

No documentation.

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Curcuma mangga Valeton & Zijp [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 26; cited 2016 Nov 04]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-235254
  2. Lim TK. Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants. Volume 12, modified stems, roots, bulbs. Cham, Switzerland: Springer 2016; p. 363-370.
  3. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research. Compendium of medicinal plants used in Malaysia. Volume 1. Kuala Lumpur: HMRC IMR; 2002. p. 233.
  4. Hanelt P, editor. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2001; p. 2382.
  5. Kays SJ. Cultivates vegetables of the world: A multilingual onomasticon. Wageningen, Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers, 2011; p. 61.
  6. Backer CA, van den Brink RC Jr. Flora of Java Volume 3. Groningen, Netherlands: Wolters-Noordhoff, 1968; p. 761.
  7. Rukmana HR. Temu-temuan, apotek hidup di pekarangan. Yogyakarta: Kanisius, 2004; p. 20.
  8. Ridley HN. Flora of the Malay Peninsula Volume 4, monocotyledones. London: Reeve, 1924; p. 254.
  9. Abas F, Lajis NH, Shaari K, et al. A labdane diterpene from the rhizomes of Curcuma mangga. J Nat Prod. 2005;68(7):1090-1093
  10. Malek SN, Lee GS, Hong SL, Yaacob H, Wahab NA, Faizal Weber JF, Shah SA. Phytochemical and cytotoxic inverstigations of Curcuma mangga rhizomes. Molecules. 2011;16(6):4539-4548.
  11. Wahab IR, Blagojevic PD, RadulovicNS, Boylan F. Volatiles of Curcuma mangga Val & Zijp ( Zingiberaceae) from Malaysia. Chem Biodivers. 2011;8(11):2005-2014.
  12. Tewtrakul S, Subgadhirasakul S. Anti-allergic activity of some selected plants in the Zingiberaceae family. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;109(3);535-538.
  13. Kaewkroek K, Wattanapiromsakul C, Tewtrakul S. Anti-inflammatory mechanism of compound from Curcuma mangga rhizome using RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Nat Prod Commun. 2010;5(10);1547-1550.
  14. Ruangsang P, Tewtrakul S, Reanmongkol W. Evaluation of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Curcuma mangga Val and Zijp rhizomes. J Nat Med. 2010;64(1):36-41
  15. Jantan I, Harun NH, Septama AW,Murad S, Mesaik MA. Inhibition of chemiluminescence and chemotactic activity phagocytes in vitro by the extracts of selected medicinal plants. J Nat Med. 2011;65(2):400-405.
  16. Kamazeri TS,Samah OA, Taher M, Susanti D, Qaralleh H. Antimicribial activity and essential oils of Curcuma aeruginosa, Curcuma mangga and Zingiber cassumunar from Malaysia. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2012;5(3):202-209.
  17. Liu Y, Nair MG. Curcuma longa and Curcuma mangga leaves exhibit functional food property. Food Chem. 2012;135(2):634-640.