Vitis vinifera L.

Last updated: 20 Jun 2016

Scientific Name

Vitis vinifera L.   

Synonyms

Cissus vinifera (L.) Kuntze, Vitis sylvestris C.C.Gmel. [1]

Vernacular Name

English Common grape vine, cultivated grape, European grape, grape, grapes, wine grape [2]
China Pu tao [2]
India Anab, angur, angora, angurphal, dachh, dakh, dakha, darakh, drakh, draksha, mundiri, onguro, sougi [2]
Japan Budo [2]
Arab Anba, dalia, anab [2]
Chile Parra, parron, vida, vina [2]
Mexico Bicholi yaha castilla [2]

Geographical Distributions

No documentation

Botanical Description

No documentation

Cultivation

No documentation

Chemical Constituent

Vitis vinifera seed has been reported to contain condensed tannins termed oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs), or procyanidolic oligomers (PCOs). [3]

Plant Part Used

No documentation

Traditional Use

V. vinifera has been reported to have antibacterial, antiviral, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and vasodilatory effect [4].

Preclinical Data

Pharmacology

Antioxidant activity

OPCs found in V. vinifera seeds are antioxidants, or free radical scavengers [3]. Free radical damage has been associated with nearly every chronic degenerative disease, including cardiovascular diseases, arthritis, hypercholesterolemia and cancer [4]. V. vinifera seeds also have been found to inhibit lipid peroxidation, platelet aggregation, capillary permeability and fragility, and to affect enzyme systems including phospholipase A2, xanthine oxidase, cyclooxygenase, and lipoxygenase. Proanthocyanidins have been associated with the term "French Paradox," or the observation that a high dietary intake of fats in France is not associated with an increase in atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases [5].

Proanthocyanidins contained in V. vinifera seed are reported to neutralize lipid peroxidation damage to cell membranes through their free radical scavenging activity, including hydroxyl, lipid peroxides and iron-induced lipid peroxidation. [6][7][8][9][10][11]

The antioxidant capacity of procyanidins found in V. vinifera seed extract are reported in laboratory studies to modulate inflammatory processes, including reducing the expression of IL-6 and MCP-1 and enhancing the production of the anti-inflammatory adipokine adiponectin suggesting that may have a beneficial effect on low-grade inflammatory diseases. [12]

Cardioprotective activity

V. vinifera polyphenols have been reported in laboratory and human studies to have antioxidant properties that are beneficial to cardiovascular health, including decreasing low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol oxidation and platelet aggregation, vasoprotection and antiatherosclerotic properties [13][14]. Proanthocyanidins are claimed to support collagen structures and inhibit the destruction of collagen, strengthening capillary walls and other vessels [15][16]. Collagen protection is claimed to be very important for health because it allows red blood cells to penetrate into the microcapillary system and prevent fluids from leaking out of the microvasculature [17][18]. OPCs reportedly protect 1-antitripsin, a chemical that keeps enzymes from breaking down collagen, elastin and hyaluronic acid [6][19] and directly inhibits these substances from damaging enzymes. OPCs have also been reported to decrease edema, based upon the stabilization of the capillary wall and prevention of the increase in capillary permeability [20][21][22].

The OPCs of V. vinifera seed have also been reported to have PAF inhibiting ability in laboratory studies, with potency comparable to that of aspirin. The inhibitory effect of OPCs on thromboxane biosynthesis may explain the platelet aggregation inhibiting activity. [23]

The antioxidant effect may be useful in protection from unhealthy cholesterol levels. A laboratory animal study reported that a single dose proanthocyanidins from grape seeds increased the resistance of blood plasma against oxidative stress. [24]

Antiproliferative activity

V. vinifera seed proanthocyanidins were recently reported to be cytotoxic in vitro against some cancer cell lines, including human breast, lung, colon, gastric, prostate and others [25][26][27][28]. V. vinifera seed extract has been reported in laboratory studies to be a potential agent in breast cancer support through suppression of aromatase expression [29][30]. Also, the V. vinifera seed extract enhanced the growth and viability of the normal human gastric mucosal cells and murine macrophage cells. V. vinifera seed proanthocyanidins were also reported to have radioprotective activity, decreasing the damaging effects of radiation in an in vitro study [31].

Another in vitro study reported that OPCs from grape seed were effective in reducing the damaging effects of chemotherapeutic agents (idarubicin, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide) on Chang liver cells, and may be useful in preventing the toxic effects of these agents in individuals undergoing cancer treatment [32][33]. V. vinifera seed OPCs were also reported in a laboratory animal study to be hepatoprotective against acetaminophen, decreasing the damaging effects on hepatocytes and reducing liver injury [34]. V. vinifera seed extract’s mechanism in cancer includes inhibition of angiogenesis via suppression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling and inducing apoptosis via activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase [35][36].

Anti-inflammatory activity

OPCs have been reported to inhibit the degradation of mast cells and the subsequent release of mediators of inflammation, such as histamine and prostaglandins, and therefore may be useful in allergies and sinus problems [16]. OPCs have also been reported to inhibit the enzyme xanthine oxidase, a major producer of free radicals [37].

Inflammatory up-regulation is strongly associated with chronic diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases, thyroid and other hormonal imbalances, obesity, type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, sleep disturbances, cardiovascular diseases and cancer.  Laboratory studies have reported that the antioxidant polyphenols found in V. vinifera seed extract help attenuate inflammatory processes seen in an Alzheimer’s brain model, reducing amyloid-beta deposition and microglia activation. [38]

Laboratory studies have found that V. vinifera seed extract may be beneficial in oral health, positively affected the in vitro demineralization and/or remineralization processes of artificial root caries lesions and also inhibiting matrix metalloproeinases (MMPs) produced by inflammatory cells in response to gram (-) periodontopathogens. [39][40]

Laboratory studies have reported V. vinifera seed extract may inhibit vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 induction by advanced glycation end products (AGE) by activating PPAR gamma expression [41].

Anticollagenase activity

OPCs have been reported effective in improving the visual performances after glare as well as the visual adaptation [42]. An in vitro study using OPCs from V. vinifera seed was reported to inhibit this type III collagenase activity and may be beneficial in reducing the damaging effects on ocular structures. [43]

Toxicity

No documentation

Clinical Data

Clinical findings

Antioxidant activity

A human study looked at the plasma level of free radical-induced 8-isoprostane formation in healthy human subjects after V. vinifera seed administration. A significant reduction in 8-isoprostane levels was found, supporting V. vinifera seed’s antioxidant benefits in humans. [44]

Cardioprotective activity

In one double-blind, placebo controlled study, 71 patients with peripheral venous insufficiency received V. vinifera seed extract (300 mg OPCs) or placebo daily [45]. The individuals receiving the grape seed extract reported a 75% reduction in the symptoms associated with venous insufficiency. Another report of a single administration of OPCs (150 mg) resulted in an increase in venous tone in patients with varicosities [46]. Similarly, a double blind, placebo controlled study of elderly individuals with either spontaneous or drug-induced low capillary resistance were treated with OPCs from grape seed (100-150 mg) or placebo. The study results reported a noticeable improvement (53% of treated individuals) in capillary resistance after two weeks of therapy. [47]

Several clinical studies have reported administration of grape seed extract decreases levels of oxidized LDL cholesterol. [48][49][50]

A small clinical study found that grape seed extract was beneficial in lowering systolic and diastolic blood pressures in patients with metabolic syndrome. There were no significant changes in lipids or blood glucose values. [51]

Antiproliferative activity

A double-blind, placebo controlled, randomized phase II trial did not find any benefit when using V. vinifera seed extract to improve breast tissue induration after high dose radiation therapy. [52]

Anti-inflammatory activity

OPCs have been used in allergies because of their reported ability to inhibit degradation of mast cells and the subsequent release of histamine and other mediators of inflammation. In contrast, a study involving 49 seasonal allergic rhinitis sufferers compared the effects of 100 mg V. vinifera seed extract twice a day against placebo. The evaluation of multiple endpoints demonstrated no significant differences between the treatment and placebo groups. [53]

Anticollagenase activity

An open trial of 147 individuals with retinopathy were administered OPCs from grape seed (100 mg) daily [54]. The authors reported successful treatment of exudations secondary to hypoxia. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMP's), a protein which plays a key role in the extracellular matrix turnover, is thought to be involved in ocular pathologies such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, vitreous degeneration and corneal stroma ulceration [55].

Precautions

No documentation

Side effects

No documentation

Pregnancy/Breast Feeding

No documentation

Age limitation

No documentation

Adverse reaction

No documentation

Interaction & Depletion

No documentation

Interaction with drug

No documentation

Interaction with other Herbs

No documentation

Contraindications

No documentation

Case Report

No documentation

Dosage

No documentation

Poisonous Management

No documentation

Line drawing

No documentation

References

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  2. Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms and etymology. Volume V R-Z. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 2012; p. 766.
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