Coscinium blumeanum Miers ex Hook.f. & Thomson

Last updated: 11 Jun 2016

Scientific Name

Coscinium blumeanum Miers ex Hook.f. & Thomson

Synonyms

No documentation.

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Mengkunyit, merkunit, sekunyit, kekunyit, akar kayu berduri [1], daun balik angina [2]
Indonesia Lubu alang [3][4].

Geographical Distributions

Coscinium blumeanum is found in Malaysia and Sumatera. In the peninsula, it is found mainly in the north. [2]

Botanical Description

C. blumeanum is a member of the Menispermaceae family. It is a woody climber, whitish and wooly. [5]

The leaves are coriaceous, oblong-ovate or oblong shortly acuminate with rounded base and peltate. The upper surface is glabrous while the underside is white and tomentose; measuring 20-30 cm x 10-15 cm. There are 7 nerves radiating from the apex to the petiole with reticulations very prominent and secondary nerves inarching near the edge. The petiole measures 15-20 cm long and thickened at both ends. [5]

The male inflorescence from the old wood measures 10-12 cm long, wooly-tomentose with 7.5 cm long branchlets. The heads globose measure 1 cm across. The sepals and petals are light yellow in colour, silky-tomentose outside, lanceolate sub-spathulate, inner ones narrower. The stamens are six in number. [5]

Cultivation

No documentation

Chemical Constituent

C. blumeanum has been reported to contain palmatine, berberine, jatrorrhizine, columbamine, triacontanyl caffeate [6], alkaloid, fibleucin, delta(8,9)-decarboxyfibleucin, 6-hydroxyfibraurin and fibraurin. [7][8][9]

Plant Part Used

Root [10]

Traditional Use

Pounded roots soaked in water used to treat cuts and sores in the Malay villages. Lotion made from pounded roots and stem is applied on skin to treat miliaria. [4]

Preclinical Data

Pharmacology

Antioxidant activity

In a study on 3 Minespermacea species collectively called Khaminkhruea in Thailand, four isolated compounds (berberine, palmatine, jartrorrhizine and triacontanyl caffeate) showing antioxidant activities. Of these compound, triacontanyol caffeate proved to be the main antioxidant followed by jatrorrhizine then palmatine and berberine. [10]

Cytotoxic activity

Extracts of C. blumeanum Miers showed cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp and human cancer cell line MCF-7 (Breast adenocarcinoma). The alkaloids berberine, jatrorrhizine and palmatine showed significant cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp and MCF-7 cells while triacontanyl caffeate was less cytotoxic. [11]

Toxicity

No documentation

Clinical Data

No documentation

Dosage

No documentation

Poisonous Management

No documentation

Line drawing

No documentation

References

  1. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research. Compendium of medicinal plants used in Malaysia. Volume I. Kuala Lumpur: HMRC IMR, 2002; p. 219.
  2. Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms and etymology. Volume II C-D. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 2012; p. 448.
  3. Friedrich Anton Wilhelm Miquel Flora Indie Batavae C.G. van der Post 1860 Amsterdam pg. 157, 382
  4. Zakaria M, Mohd MA. Traditional Malay medicinal plants. Kuala Lumpur: Institute Terjemahan Negara Malaysia, 2010; p. 171
  5. Ridley HN. The flora of the Malay Peninsula. Volume 1: Polypetale. London: L. Reeve & Co., 1922; p. 106.
  6. Manske RHF, Holmes HL, editors. The alkaloids: Chemistry and Physiology. Volume IV. New York: Academic Press, 1954; p. 86, 93, 95.
  7. Burkill IH. A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay Peninsula. Volume 1. London: Published on behalf of the governments of the Straits settlements and Federated Malay states by the Crown agents for the colonies; 1935.
  8. Bakhari NA, Wah ST, Chinnakali K. Delta(8,9)-decarboxyfibleucin from Fibraurea chloroleuca Miers. Acta Cryst. 1999;C55:228-230.
  9. Hori T, Kiang AK, Nakanishi K, Sasaki S, Woods MC. The structure of fibraurin and a minor product from Fibraurea chloroleuca. Tetrahedron. 1967;23(6):2649-2656.
  10. Niwat K, Sukanya D, Supreeya Y. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Thai medicinal plants named Khaminkhruea: Arcangelisia flava, Coscinium blumeanum and Fibraurea tinctoria Songklanakarin. J Sci Technol. 2005;27(2):455-467.