Scyphiphora hydrophylacea C.F.Gaertn.

Last updated: 15 Aug 2016

Scientific Name

Scyphiphora hydrophylacea C.F.Gaertn. 

Synonyms

Epithinia malayana Jack, Ixora manila Blanco, Scyphiphora malayana (Jack) Bedd. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Cengam, cingam, singam, sebasah (Peninsular Malaysia) [2]; geriting putih, jambo-jambo, landing-landing, randing-randing, santing-santing (Malaysian Borneo) [3]
English Common scyphiphora, yamstick mangrove [4]
Indonesia Duduk rayup (Java); cingam, duduk perempuan, perapat lanang (Sumatra) [2]
Thailand Sengum dok [2]
Singapore Chengam [5]
Philippines Nilad [4]
Papua New Guinea Akora [4].

Geographical Distributions

No documentation.

Botanical Description

Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea is a member of the Rubaiceae family. It is one of the true mangrove trees found in the foreshore mud seasides of the tropical belt. It is a shrub or small tree that could reach up to 4m high. The branches are weakly flattened to angled or terete, glabrous or puberulent, with nodes thickened and reduced internodes and congested nodes. [6]

The leaves are obovate to broadly elliptic and measures 2.5-7.5 x 1.5-4.5 cm, glabrous on both surfaces with the upper surface shiny. The base is cuneate to obtuse, the apex is rounded; secondary veins are not visible. The petiole is 0.5-1.5 cm long, and stipules are 1.5-3 mm and their margins are often sparsely or densely ciliated. [6]

The inflorescence measures 1.5-3 x 2-2.5 cm; peduncle is 0.5-1 cm long. The flowers are usually sessile or pedicellate and pedicels or subtending inflorescence axes are 2 mm long. The calyx is glabrous to puberulent. The ovary portion being cylindrical-ellipsoid measuring 3-4 mm; limb is 1-1.5 mm, truncate to denticulate. The corolla is glabrous outside; tube measures 4-5 mm long; lobes ovate-lingulated measuring 2 mm, obtuse. [6]

The drupe is 8-11 x 3-5 mm and glabrous. [6]

Cultivation

No documentation.

Chemical Constituent

S. hydrophyllacea  has been reported to contain 4-hydroxyphenethyl 2-hydroxypropanoate, betulone, casuarinondiol, cyclo (Pro-Val), cyclo (Phe-Hyp), fraxetol, friedelin, geniposidic acid, guaiacylglycerol-beta-ferulic acid ether, guignardone D, guignardone E, hydrophylin A, hydrophylin B, isoscopoletin, methyl pyroglutamate, methyl 5-acetamido-6-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxohexanoate, R-3-hydroxyundecanoic uridine-5'α-hydroxypropanoate, acid methylester-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside, scyphiphin C, scyphiphin D, and syringic acid. [7][8][9][10][11][12]

Plant Part Used

Leaves [2][5]

Traditional Use

A warm extract of the leaves is supposedly helpful for stomachache. [2][5]

Preclinical Data

Pharmacology

Cytotoxic activity

A screening for cytotoxic agent in mangrove plants showed that S. hydrophyllacea inhibited human hepatoma SMCC-7721 cell lines withIC50 of 15.1 µg/mL. Chemical analysis showed the presence of flavones and triterpenoids of which betulone exhibits inhibitory activity towards human hepatoma SMCC-7721 cell lines (IC50 = 12.5 µg/mL). The noriridoids isolated from the ethanol extract of the aerial parts of S. hydrophyllacea did not show obvious cytotoxicity against the SMMC-7721 cell lines by the MTT methods. The IC50 values of the isolated compounds against SMMC-7721 were more than 100 µg/L. [7]

Two compounds isolated from the endophytic fungus Z18-17 (Nigrospora sp.) i.e. methyl 5-acetamido-6-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxohexanoate and uridine-5'α-hydroxypropanoate, were tested against HL-60 cell lines and their IC50 were found to be over 100 µg/mL. [12]

Antimicrobial activity

A number of compounds isolated from the endophytic fungus A1 of S. hydrophyllacea were found to exhibit antimicrobial activity especially against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and S. aureus. [13]

Toxicity

No documentation.

Clinical Data

No documentation.

Dosage

No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing

No documentation.

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Scyphiphora hydrophylacea C.F.Gaertn. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 23; cited 2016 Aug 10]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-189891
  2. Burkill IH. A Dictionary of Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula Volume 2, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 1966. p. 1987
  3. Slik JWF. Asian Plants. [homepage on the Internet]. c2009 [cited 2013 May 18] Available from: http://www.asianplant.net/Rubiaceae/Scyphiphora_hydrophyllacea.htm.
  4. Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Volume V R-Z. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 2012; p. 215.
  5. Ng PKL, Sivasothi N, editors. Guide to the mangroves of Singapore. [homepage on the Internet] Singapore: National University of Singapore; c2001. [cited 2013 May 18] Available from: http://mangrove.nus.edu.sg/guidebooks/text/1072.htm.
  6. Flora of China. Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea Gaertn. f. [homepage on the Internet]. No date [cited 2013 May 18] Available from: http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=3&taxon_id=200022220
  7. Zeng TB, Mei WL, Zhao YX, Dai HF. [Two new noriridoids from Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea]. Z. Naturforsch. 2008;63(1):108-110. German.
  8. Tao SH, Gao GC, Qi SH, Li QX, Zhang S. [Studies on the chemical constituents of Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea (II)]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2009;32(5):712-714. Chinese.
  9. Feng CL, Gong MF, Zeng YB, Dai HF, Mei WL. Scyphiphin C, a new iridoid from Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea. Molecules. 2010;15(4):2473-2477.
  10. Zheng B, Zeng YB, Dai HF, et al. Two new meroterpenes from endophytic fungus A1 of Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2012;14(8):776-779.
  11. Zeng YB, Wang H, Zuo WJ, et al. A fatty acid glycoside from a marine-derived fungus isolated from mangrove plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea. Mar Drugs. 2012;10(3):598-603.
  12. Chen G, Tian L, Wu HH, et al. Secondary metabolites from fungus Nigrospora sp. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2012;14(8):759-763.
  13. Mei WL, Zheng B, Zhao YX, et al. Meroterpenes from endophytic fungus A1 of mangrove plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea. Mar Drugs. 2012;10(9):1993-2001.