Chrysanthemum indicum L.

Last updated: 14 July 2016

Scientific Name

Chrysanthemum indicum L.

Synonyms

Achillea bandana Buch.-Ham. [Invalid], Achillea berdana Buch.-Ham. ex DC. [Invalid], Arctotis elegans Thunb., Bidens bardanna Wall. [Invalid], Bidens marginata DC., Chrysanthemum indicum var. albescens Makino, Chrysanthemum indicum var. coreanum H.Lév., Chrysanthemum indicum var. edule Kitam., Chrysanthemum indicum var. hiberinumj Makino, Chrysanthemum indicum var. indicum, Chrysanthemum indicum var. litorale Ling, Chrysanthemum indicum var. lushanense (Kitam.) Hand.-Mazz., Chrysanthemum indicum var. procumbens (Lour.) Nakai, Chrysanthemum japonicum Thunb., Chrysanthemum japonicum var. japonicum, Chrysanthemum koraiense Nakai, Chrysanthemum lushanense Kitam., Chrysanthemum nankingense Hand.-Mazz., Chrysanthemum procumbens Lour., Chrysanthemum purpureum Pers., Chrysanthemum tripartitum Sweet, Collaea procumbens (Rich.) Spreng., Dendranthema indicum (L.) Des Moul., Dendranthema indicum var. edule (Kitam.) Kitam., Dendranthema indicum var. huludaoensis "G.Y.Zhang, L.J.Yu & Y.J.Liu", Dendranthema indicum var. procumbens (Lour.) Kitam., Dendranthema nankingense (Hand.-Mazz.) X.D.Cui, Matricaria indica (L.) Desr., Pyrethrum indicum (L.) Cass., Tanacetum indicum (L.) Sch.Bip. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Kekwa [2]
English False chamomile, Indian chrysanthemum, winter aster [2]
China Ye ju [3]
India Akkarakaram, akkarakkaram, bahupatrika, bhringavallabha, bringhesta, camandi, camanti,camantippu, camanti ilai, camanti ppu, cavantikai, cevanti, cevantippu, cevvanti, chamunti, charukesara, civanti, civantippu, civavallapam, gandhadya, guldaudi, gundandi, karnika, kumari, malaimantika, malairnantikappu, mancika, nattuccamaoti, pintacam, pintam, pintaputpam, pilltasaplttpaln, pirakarapuspi, ramataruni, saha, samanthi poo sevanti, sevantika, shamanthi poo, shamantippu, shavantige, shetapatri, shevanti, shevati, shivavallabha, shyavantige, sudala, taruni [3]
Indonesia Sruni alas (Javanese) [2]
Thailand Benchamaat suan (Central) [2]
Philippines Mansanilla, dolontas (Tagalog) [2]; dolontas, rnansanilla a bahassit, manzanilla
Vietnam Kim c[us]c, c[us]c hoa v[af]ng [2], cam cuc, da cue, hoang cuc [3]
France Chrysanthème des Indes [2].

Geographical Distributions

Chrysanthemum indicum grows wild in Japan and China, Taiwan, Java, and the Philippines. It is cultivated in many countries all over the world as an ornamental. In India, Vietnam, China and Japan it is cultivated as a medicinal, and has become naturalised on a small scale. [2]

Botanical Description

C. indicum is a member of the Compositae family. It is an erect or ascending, perennial, aromatic, pubescent herb, 30-60 cm tall, with stolons and rhizomes. [2]

The leaves are ovate to oblong-ovate in outline, 3-5 cm x 2.5-4 cm in size, pinnately lobed with 2-3 lobes on each side and abruptly narrowed at the base. [2]

The peduncle is short, involucral bracts are oblong or elliptical and equalling the achenes in size, with the heads are 1.5-2.5 cm in diametre. The petal of ligulate flower is 11-13 mm long. [2]

Cultivation

Several varieties are recognised within C. indicum (Dendranthema indicum), one of which is Dendranthema indicum var. edule (Kitam.) Kitam. which is cultivated as a vegetable in China. The wild type grows on sunny, fertile and humid locations, up to 1000 m altitude. The optimum temperature range is from 15°C to 30°C. [2]

Chemical Constituent

Essential oil of the fresh, air-dried and processed flowers of C. indicum has been reported to contain 1,8-cineole, camphor, borneol, bornyl acetate, α-terpineol, cis-sabinol, thujone, terpinen-4-ol, ρ-cymene, and linalool. [4]

Essential oil of C. indicum has been reported to contain sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (e.g. α-copaene, β-elemene, β-caryophyllene, β-farnesene, β-humulene and germacrene-D, α-selinene, ar-curcumene, calamenene, γ-cadinene and calacorene) and oxygenated sesquiterpenoid (e.g. T-muurololol). [5]

Methanol extract of C. indicum flowers has been reported to contain flavone, flavone glycosides, eudesmane-type sesquiterpenes (e.g. kikkanols A, kikkanols B, and kikkanols C) [6] and a trans-eudesmane type sesquiterpene (chrysanthemol) [7]

C. indicum flowers also contain germacrane-type sesquiterpenes (e.g. kikkanol D, kikkanol D monoacetate, kikkanol E, kikkanol F, kikkanol F monoacetate, kikkanol A, kikkanol B, kikkanol C, oplopanone, clovanediol, caryolane 1,9b-diol, cis-spiroketalenolether polyyne, trans-spiroketalenolether polyyne, luteolin, eupatilin) [8], flavanone glycosides (e.g. (2S)- and (2R)-eriodictyol 7-O-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acids), phenylbutanoid glycoside (e.g. (2S, 3S)-1-phenyl-2,3-butanediol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside), and flavonoids [9].

C. indicum mineral analysis has been reported to contain calcium, phosphorus, sulphur, and magnesium [10].

Plant Part Used

No documentation.

Traditional Use

No documentation.

Preclinical Data

Pharmacology

Anti-inflammatory, antigout and antithrombotic activity

C. indicum extract prepared from the inflorescence or bud showed anti-inflammatory activity with the butanol soluble fraction showing more activity than other fractions. The butanol fraction possessed anti-inflammatory, humoral and cellular immunomodulatory and mononuclear phagocytic activities, which were attributed due to the presence of flavonoids in the plant. At a dose of 150 mg/kg, p.o., the butanol soluble fraction of the herb caused significant inhibition of auricle edema in mice. Delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction induced by 2,4-dinitro-fluorobenzene was significantly enhanced by the butanol extract (150 & 300mg/kg, p.o.) as was antibody generation by splenic cells of mice and IgG and IgM levels in mice sera in response to sheep red blood cells in cyclophosphamide-induced mice. Both these doses potentiated the function of the mononuclear phagocytic system in cyclophosphamide-induced mice. [11]

The effects of 70% ethanolic extract from C. indicum also represented anti-inflammation in mice skin. The resulted showed the effectively reducing murine cutaneous inflammation induced by exposure to the protein kinase C activator and tumor promoter such as 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA). [12]

Inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity (extract IC50, 22 µg/mL; allopurinol as positive control IC50, 1.06 µg/mL) was exhibited by the methanol extract of the flowers of C. indicum, thus providing a basis for the use of this medicinal plant for gout treatment. [13]

Partial evidence for the empiric and traditional use of C. indicum in the treatment or prevention of thrombosis was provided by the observation that the aqueous extract was 10-12 times more potent on PAF-induced aggregation of human platelet rich plasma compared to ADP aggregation of rat platelet rich plasma. [14]

Antimicrobial activity

The essential oils showed antimicrobial activity against many microorganisms which was attributed to their content of camphor and borneol, and the lower amounts of α-terpineol, terpinen-4-ol, ρ-cymene and linalool. The oil from fresh flowers oil was believed to possess a strong antimicrobial effect because of its high percentage of 1.8-cineole (30.41%) and camphor (23.52%). [4]

Antibacterial activities of the essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were shown by disk diffusion tests. [14]

Aldose reductase inhibition activity

The methanolic extract from the flowers was found to show inhibitory activity against rat lens aldose reductase. [6]

Antioxidant activity

The methanolic extract and ethyl acetate-soluble portion from the flowers showed inhibitory activity against nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages with potent inhibitory activity shown by the acetylenic compounds and flavonoids from the ethyl acetate-soluble portion. [8]

Cardiac activity

The water extract of the flowers has a coronary vasodilating action and a renal vasoconstricting action in the open-chest dog with the pharmacological profile of the water extract to be in part, similar to that of adenosine. Intravenous administration of the aqueous extract (5-20 mg/kg) produced a decrease in aortic blood pressure and increases in coronary blood flow, left ventricular dP/dt and heart rate in a dose-dependent manner while renal blood flow was initially decreased and then increased to the values above the pre-injection level.  A two-fold increase in coronary blood flow was elicited by the aqueous extract (13.8 mg/kg) and by adenosine (29.5 µg/kg). [15]

Toxicity

Sesquiterpene lactones from the crude extract of dried flowers gave strong reactions on epicutaneous applications to guinea pigs sensitized with an extract of C. indicum. One of the allergens was identified as a sesquiterpene lactone of the guaianolide type which was identical to arteglasin-A derived from Artemisia douglasiana Bess. [16]

Clinical Data

Clinical findings

No documentation.

Precautions

No documentation.

Side effects

No documentation.

Pregnancy/Breast Feeding

No documentation.

Age limitation

No documentation.

Adverse reaction

Contact hypersensitivity has been reported caused by C. indicum. The positive patch tests in six persons were observed, most frequently with alantolactone (positive in all cases) and to arbusculin A, 8-deoxycumambrin, ambrosin, damsin and psilostachynin [17]. Chrysanthemum was an important suspected sensitizer in both occupationally and non-occupationally exposed Compositae-allergic patients [18].

Interaction & Depletion

No documentation.

Contraindications

No documentation.

Dosage

No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing

111

 

Figure 1: The line drawing of C. indicum [2]

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Chrysanthemum indicum L. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Feb 11; cited 2016 Jun 28]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/gcc-139655
  2. Schmelzer GH. Dendranthema indicum (L.) Des Moul. In: van Valkenburg JLCH, Bunyapraphatsara N, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 12(2): Medicinal and poisonous plants 2. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers, 2001; p. 212-213.
  3. Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Volume II C-D. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 2012; p. 649-650.
  4. Shunying Z, Yang Y, Huaidong Y, Yue Y, Guolin Z. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Chrysanthemum indicum. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;96(1-2):151-158.
  5. Uchio Y, Tomosue K, Nakayama M, Yamammura A, Waki T. Constituents of the essential oil from three tetraploid species of chrysanthemum. Phytoxhemistry. 1981;20(12): 2691-2693.
  6. Yoshikawa M, Morikawa T, Murakami T, Toguchida I, Harima S, Matsuda H. Medicinal flowers. I. Aldose reductase inhibitors and three new eudesmane-type sesquiterpenes, kikkanols A, B, and C, from the flowers of Chrysanthemum indicum L. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1999;47(3):340-345.
  7. Mou LY, Zhu LY, Lin ZY, Liang XT. Stereoselective total synthesis of chrysanthemol. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2001;3(2):103-116.
  8. Yoshikawa M, Morikawa T, Toguchida I, Harima S, Matsuda H. Medicinal flowers. II. Inhibitors of nitric oxide production and absolute stereostructures of five new germacrane-type sesquiterpenes, kikkanols D, D monoacetate, E, F, and F monoacetate from the flowers of Chrysanthemum indicum L. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2000;48(5):651-656.
  9. Matsuda H, Morikawa T, Toguchida I, Harima S, Yoshikawa M. Medicinal flowers. VI. Absolute stereostructures of two new flavanone glycosides and a phenylbutanoid glycoside from the flowers of Chrysanthemum indicum L.: their inhibitory activities for rat lens aldose reductase. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2002; 50(7):972-975.
  10. Chin CO. Direct analysis of plant minerals and comparison of extraction processes using ICP-AES. Food Chemistry. 1992;45:145-149.
  11. Cheng W, Li J, You T, Hu C. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of the extracts from the inflorescence of Chrysanthemum indicum Linné. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;101(1-3):334-337.
  12. Lee DY, Choi G, Yoon T, Cheon MS, Choo BK, Kim HK. Anti-inflammatory activity of Chrysanthemum indicum extract in acute and chronic cutaneous inflammation. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;1(123):149-154.
  13. Kong LD, Cai Y, Huang WW, Cheng CH, Tan RX. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by some Chinese medicinal plants used to treat gout. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000;73(1-2):199-207.
  14. Aridogan BC, Baydar H, Kaya S, Demirci M, Ozbasar D, Mumcu E. Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of some essential oils . Arch Pharm Res. 2002;25(6):860-864.
  15. Kato T, Noguchi K, Sakanashi M, et al. Effects of the water extract of Chrysanthemum indicum Linn. on coronary and systemic hemodynamics in the dog. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther. 1986;280(2):241-253.
  16. Hausen BM and Schulz, KH. Chrysanthemum allergy III. Identification of the allergens. Arch Derm Res. 1976;255:111-121.
  17. Bleumink E, Mitchell JC, Geissman, TA, Towers GHC. Contact hypersensitivity to sesquiterpene lactones in Chrysanthemum dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis. 1976;2(2):81-88.
  18. Paulsen E, Andersen KE, Hausen BM. Sensitization and cross-reaction patterns in Danish Compositae-allergic patients. Contact Dermatitis. 2001;45(4):197-204.
  19. Cheo MS, Yoon T, Lee DY, et al. Chrysanthemum indicum Linné extract inhibits the inflammatory response by suppressing NF-κB and MAPKs activation in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;3(122):473-477.