Citrus reticulata Blanco

Last updated: 07 Feb 2017

Scientific Name

Citrus reticulata Blanco

Synonyms

Citrus chrysocarpa Lush., Citrus crenatifolia Lush., Citrus daoxianensis S.W.He & G.F.Liu, Citrus deliciosa Ten., Citrus depressa Hayata, Citrus erythrosa Yu.Tanaka, Citrus himekitsu Yu.Tanaka, Citrus koozi (Sieb. ex Yu.Tanaka) Yu.Tanaka, Citrus lycopersiciformis (Lush.) Yu.Tanaka, Citrus mangshanensis S.W.He & G.F.Liu, Citrus nippokoreana Yu.Tanaka, Citrus otachihana Yu.Tanaka, Citrus papillaris Blanco, Citrus ponki Yu.Tanaka, Citrus poonensis Yu.Tanaka, Citrus succosa Yu.Tanaka, Citrus succosa Tanaka, Citrus sunki (Hayata) Yu.Tanaka, Citrus tachibana (Makino) Yu.Tanaka, Citrus tangerina Yu.Tanaka, Citrus tankan Hayata, Citrus unshiu (Yu.Tanaka ex Swingle) Marcow., Citrus vangasy Bojer. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Limau langkat, limau kupas, limau wangkang [2]
English Clementine, loose-skinned orange, Maltese orange, mandarin orange, Satsuma, Satsuma orange, Swatow orange, tangerine [3]
China Chen pi, ju hong pi, ju ke, ju luo, qing pi, qing pi si [3]
India Aravata, gul-e-bahar (bahar naranj), kamala, kanchi kaayi, kodagina kithaale, madhuranarakam, naarangi, naagapuri kitthale, narangi, santara, svadunarangah [3]
Indonesia Jeruk keprok, jeruk jepun, jeruk maseh [2]
Thailand Som khieo waan, som saengthong, ma baang [2]
Laos Som hot, som lot, liou [2]
Cambodia Krauch kvich [2]
Vietnam May cam chia, quat thuc, quit [3]
Japan Ponkan [3]
Tibet Skyur rtsi chun na [3]
Congo Indeleni, mandeleni [3]
Mauritius Vangassay [3]
South America Daranja, limón mandarina, mandarina, mandarina verde, mantarinarr, naranja [3].

Geographical Distributions

The distribution of Citrus reticulata has been limited to Southeast Asia, including the Malaysian Archipelago. Some writers specified Indo-China as the area of origin, but this is not likely to have been more than the core of the original range. Several of the mandarin groups distinguished in the trade are the Satsuma mandarins which are originated in Japan, the King mandarins in Indo-China, the Mediterranean mandarins in Italy, and the common mandarins in the Philippines. At present, C. reticulata is widely cultivated in all tropical and subtropical regions of the world. [2]

Botanical Description

C. reticulata is a member of the family Rutaceae. It is a small spiny tree with slender twigs. [2]

The leaves are broadly to narrowly lance-shaped or elliptic with acute at the tip and base. [2]

The flowers arise singly or in small clusters in the axils of the leaves. [2]

The fruit is a depressed spherical berry with thin, loose peel and easily separate from the segments. It is bright orange or scarlet-orange when fully ripen. [2]

The seeds are small, pointed at one end and with a green embryo. [2]

Cultivation

C. reticulata is drought-resistant and able to survive long dry periods. On the other hand, air-layered of C. reticulata with a shallow root system is preferred for areas with a high fluctuating water table where deep-rooting seedling stocks would suffocate. [2]

Chemical Constituent

C. reticulata extracted by cold-pressing method and the volatile constituents of mandarin peel oil was reported to contain ethyl acetate, α-pinene, α-fenchene, β-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, α-phellandrene, α-terpinene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, β-phellandrene, γ-terpinene, p-cymene, terpinolene, octanal, nonanal, trans-limonene oxide, trans-sabinene hydrate, δ-elemene, octyl acetate, citronellal, decanal, linalool, β-cubebene, octanol, bornyl acetate, methyl thymol, α-terpinyl acetate, terpinen-4-ol, β-caryophyllene, (Z)-β-farnesene, l-menthol, β-elemene, citronellyl acetate, isoborneol, dodecenal, germacrene D, neryl acetate, valencene, β-bisabolene, geranial, bicyclogermacrene, (E)-2-undecenal, geranyl acetate, α-citronellol, decanol, β-citronellol, perillaldehyde, nerol, tridecanal, germacrene B, (Z)-nerolidol, isosafrole, thymol, β-sinensal, decanoic acid, α-sinensal, undecanoic acid, 1,4,7,10-tetraoxacyclodecane. [4]

Plant Part Used

Peel (layer of the skin) and essential oil. [2]

Traditional Use

C. reticulata fruits are highly regarded to its fresh consumption [4]. Its oil is used as fragrance used in soap, lotions and ointments [5]. Because of the loose peel and distinct flavour ranging from consistently sour in some cultivars to very sweet in others, most mandarins are eaten fresh. Segments of fruit are canned and juice is extracted from the fruit. Pectin and essential oils are derived from the rind, which in Indonesia is used in salads [2].

Preclinical Data

Pharmacology

Antimicrobial activity

The antifungal activity of C. reticulata essential oil was tested by poisoned food (PF) technique and the volatile activity (VA) assay against five plant pathogenic fungi viz Alternaria alternate, Rhizoctonia solani, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium oxysporum and Helminthosporium oryzae. The minimum inhibition concentration for A. alternata, R. solani and C. lunata was 0.2ml/100ml whereas less than 0.2ml/100ml for F. oxysporum and H. oryzae in PF technique. [6]

The volatile oil of C. reticulata was extracted by steam distillation and was tested against some gram-negative and gram-positive organisms. Result from the study showed that the oil has a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. Minimum inhibition concentration was recorded as follows, Staphylococcus aureus (0.74mg/ml, 2.46mg/ml), Enterococcus faecalis (1.26mg/ml), Salmonella typhii (2.07mg/ml), Klebsiella pneumoniae (0.56mg/ml), Escherichia coli (0.19mg/ml, 1.95mg/ml), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (0.97mg/ml) and Candida albicans (0.68mg/ml). [7]

Toxicity

No documentation.

Clinical Data

No documentation.

Dosage

No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing

120

Figure 1: The line drawing of C. reticulata [3].

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver 1.1. Citrus reticulata Blanco. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 23; cited 2017 Feb 07]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-2724336.
  2. Ashari S. Citrus reticulata Blanco In: Verheij EWM, Coronel RE, editors. Plant resources of South-East Asia No. 2: Edible fruits and nuts. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Pudoc Publishers, 1991; p. 135-138.
  3. Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Volume II C-D. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 2012; p. 284.
  4. Njoroge SM, Mungai HN. Volatile constituents of mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) peel oil from Burundi. J Essent Oil Res. 2006;18:659-662.
  5. Bauer K, Garbe D, Surburg H. Common fragrance and flavour materials: Preparation, properties and uses. Germany: Wiley VCH; 1997.
  6. Chutia M, Deka Bhuyan P, Pathak MG, Sarma TC, Boruah P. Antifungal activity and chemical composition of Citrus reticulata Blanco essential oil against phytopathogens from North East India. LWT-Food Sci Tech. 2009;42(3):777-780.
  7. Ayoola GA, Johnson OO, Adelowotan T, et al. Evaluation of the chemical constituents and the antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil of Citrus reticulata fruit (Tangerine fruit peel) from South West Nigeria. African J Biotechnol. 2008;7(13):2227-2231.