Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn.

Last updated: 28 September 2015

Scientific Name

Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn.

Synonyms

Antidesma frutescens Jack, Antidesma ghaesembilla var. paniculatum (Blume) Müll.Arg., Antidesma ghaesembilla var. vestitum (C.Presl) Müll.Arg., Antidesma paniculatum Blume, Antidesma pubescens Roxb., Antidesma rhamnoides Brongn. ex Tul., Antidesma schultzii Benth., Antidesma spicatum Blanco, Antidesma vestitum C.Presl. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Balong Ayam, Gunchak, Kunchor Puteh [2], Guncak, cuncak (Peninsula); Andarupis, Anjarubi, Anjuripes, Indarupis, Ondurupis, Tandurupis, Tendrupis (Dusun); Borotindik, Dempul, Guchek, Gunchin, Gunipot (Dusun); Kakapal (Bisaya) [3]; kunchow, gunchian [4], Kesumba, kesambi, sekinchak, kunchoh [5]
English blackcurrant tree [2]
China Fang ye wu yue cha [6]
India Amrul, ata, ceriyakottam, jaana palasheru, jamrudi, jomdri, lona, miyoto, muthbar, polari, pollai, pullari, pulusari [4]
Indonesia Dempul Lelet,  Ande-ande (Java); Kutikata gunung (Ambon); Lonang (Kalimantan) [2]; Banoton, Bohneh, Bohnei, Bungorak, Kucir, Mekremie, Monton, Tingiran puni (Sumatra); Andi, Ki valot, Onjam, Sepat, Wuni dedek, Wuni jaran dawuk. (Java); Kunfunu (Mollo); Luna, Piras, Wuler ku, Wuler satar. Kunfunu (Mollo); Luna, Piras, Wuler ku, Wuler satar (Sunda) [3]; Onyam (Sunda); Kuncir (Sumatra) [5]
Thailand Mangmao (Chanthaburi); Mao khai pla (Chon Buri) [2], kha-mao-pha, maeng-mao, mak-kao, mak-mao, mao-thung [4]
Philippines Binayuyu (Tagalog) [2]; Anyam, Arosep (Il.), Bananyo, Barunasi, Baso-baso, Bignay-pugo, Binayuyo, Bignai-pogo, Bignayoyo, Dangol, Grumun, Holat-baguis, Imian, Inang, Iniam, Kabogbog (Tagbanua) [3]
Papua New Guinea Fair (Wanigela); Sigoreh (Orokaiva); Sila, Tagi (Onjob) [5]
Bangladesh Khudijam [7]
Other Places Buembilla, Jana-pa-laseru, Jondri, Khudi jamb, Limtoa, Mata sure, Nuniari, Polari, Pollai, Pulsur, Pyizin, Timtoa, Umtoa [8]

Geographical Distributions

This plant is distributed along Tropical Africa, India, Southern China, South-East Asia and Australia. Usually found in open grassland at low and medium altitudes. [9]

Botanical Description

A. ghaesembilla is a member of the Phyllanthaceae (Euphorbiaceae) family. It is a small deciduous tree which can grow up to 16 m tall with light grey bark, branchelets, young leaves and inflorescence soft-tomentose. [9]

The leaves are alternate, simple, penni-veined with secondary veins looping, usually hairy below oval or obovate, measures 6-11 cm long. The petioles are short, main lateral nerves 4-6 pairs, stipules subulate, as long as petiole. [9]

The male flowers are yellowish green, many flowers grouped into much branched spikes. The sepals are usually 5, sometimes 6 or 7 obovate with 4-5, 2.0-2.5 mm long stamens with filaments free, inserted between disc-lobes; disc 4-6-lobed; rudimentary ovary obconical, measures 0.7 mm long. The female flowers are many flowers grouped into much branched racemes with very short pedicels and sepals as in male. The discs are annular with ovary ovoid, measures ca. 1 mm in diameter with 3 styles and a terminal. [9]

The drupes are small, dark purple when ripe and pulp is agreeably acid. [9]

Cultivation

A. ghaesembilla prefers spars forest, open scrub, deciduous, evergreen or mixed dry forest at 200-1100 m. [10]

Chemical Constituent

A. ghaesembilla was reported to contain saponin, carbohydrates, glycosides, steroids, proteins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, fats and oil. Other composition includes phenols, flavones, tannins, coumarins, saponins, xanthoprotein, reducing sugar, alkaloids, cysteine and oil. [7][11]

Plant Part Used

Leaf, stem, fruit [4]

Traditional Use

The plant is being used by tribal people for their medicinal properties. Leaves of A. ghaesembilla were boiled with water for blood nourishment and used to treat headache. The stem is used as to stimulate menstrual flow and menorrhea. The fruit is eaten locally or used as purgative. [12]

Preclinical Data

Pharmacology

Cytotoxic activity

Methanol extract of A. ghaesembilla was tested for Brine shrimp lethality bioassay and showed cytotoxicity with LC50 value of 25 μg/ml compared to control group that exhibited no mortality using brine shrimp nauplii and DMSO as a solvent. [1]

Antimicrobial activity

Methanol extract of A. ghaesembilla inhibited bacteria growth against seven pathogenic bacteria (Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae, Bacillus cereus, Shigella sonnei, Bacillus megaterium). The results demonstrated effects against number of bacteria at concentration 1200 µg/disc in comparison with kanamycin as standard. [1]

Antioxidant activity

Methanol extract of A. ghaesembilla possessed a good antioxidant capacity and showed good DPPH scavenging activity in which IC50 value for the plant extracts was 632.528 µg mL-1 compared to ascorbic acid (13.37 µg mL-1). The cupric reducing power of the plant extract indicated good increase at the beginning while increasing the concentration and the increasing trend sustain with concentration due to the presence of reductones. [1]

Toxicity

Based on the Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay, the methanol extract of A. ghaesembilla had showed a notable cytotoxic activity. The LC50 of the methanol extract of the whole plant was found to be 25 µg/ml. [7]

Clinical Data

Clinical findings

No documentation

Dosage

Dosage Range

No documentation

Poisonous Management

No documentation

Line drawing

No documentation

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver 1.1. Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013. [updated 2012 Mar 23; cited 2015 Sept 29]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-12052
  2. Priyadi H, Takao G, Rahmawati I, Supriyanto B, Nursal WI, Rahman I. Five hundred plant species in Gunung Halimun Salak National Park, West Java. Bogor Barat, Indonesia: Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), 2010; p. 124.
  3. Hoffmann P. Antidesma in Malesia and Thailand. Kew, London: Royal Botanic Gardens, 2006; p.1–292.
  4. Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms and etymology. Volume I A-B. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 2012; p. 332.
  5. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research.Compendium of medicinal plants used in Malaysia. Volume 2. Kuala Lumpur: HMRC IMR, 2002; p. 52.
  6. Flora of China. Volume 11. Antidesma ghaesembilla. [homepage on the Internet]. No date [cited 2015 Sept 28]. Available from: http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=242303572
  7. Habib MR, Rahman MM, Hamid K, Sayeed MA. Phytochemical screening, cytotoxicity, antioxidant capacity and antibacterial potentiality of methanol extract of Antidesmaghaesembilla Gaertn. Adv Nat Appl Sci. 2011;5(2): 69–74.
  8. The Wood Explorer. Antidesma ghaesembilla. [homepage on the Internet]. c2005-2016 [cited 2015 Sept 28]. Available from: http://www.thewoodexplorer.com/maindata/we1282.html#Scientific_Name
  9. Jansen PCM, Jukema J, Oyen LPA, van Lingen TG. Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn. In: Verheij EWM, Coronel RE, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 2: Edible fruits and nuts. Wageningen, Netherlands: Pudoc, 1991; p. 317.
  10. Encyclopedia of Life. Antidesma ghaesembilla. Black Current Tree. [homepage on the Internet]. c2014. [cited 2015 Dec 2]. Available from: http://eol.org/pages/1154529/details
  11. Poonam CP, Varsha DJ, Shivprasad DM. Pharmacognostical studies on leaf of Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn, Apromising wild edible plant. Der Pharmacia Sinica. 2013:4(3);136-142.
  12. Patil PC, Jadhav VD, Mahadkar SD. Pharmacognostical studies on leaf of Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn: A promising wild edible plant. Der Pharmacia Sinica. 2013:4(3);136-142.