Eucalyptus globulus Labill.

Last updated: 19 Apr 2016

Scientific Name

Eucalyptus globulus Labill.

Synonyms

Eucalyptus gigantea Dehnh., Eucalyptus glauca A. Cunn. ex DC., Eucalyptus globulosus St.-Lag., Eucalyptus globulus subsp. globulus, Eucalyptus maidenii subsp. globulus (Labill.) J.B.Kirkp., Eucalyptus perfoliata Desf., Eucalyptus pulverulenta Link [Illegitimate]. [1]

Vernacular Name

English Blue gum, blue gum eucalyptus, blue gum tree, eucalyptus, eucalyptus tree, fever tree, southern blue gum, Tasmanian blue gum [2]
China An ye [2]
India Eucali, haritaparna, kapura maram, karpoora thaila vriksha, kapuramaram, karpuramaram, karupuramaram, nasik, nattu-kunkuli, neelagiri thailada mara, neelgiri mara, nilagiri, nilagiri mara, nilaniryasa, nilappicin, nilgiri, safeda, sugandhapatra, taila, tailaparnah, tailaparni, teilada, thephisei, yukeliptas, yukkalimaram [2]
Japan Yukari-no-ki [2]
Arabic Calibtus, kafur [2]
East Africa Mbanyi (Chagga); mkaratusi, mti-ulaya (Swahili) [2]
Tanzania Mkaratusi. [2]

Geographical Distributions

Eucalyptus globulus is a rapidly growing evergreen tree that native to South East Australia and Tasmania. [3]

Botanical Description

E. globulus is belongs to Myrtaceae family. The bark is grayish blue, smooth and exfoliating, while the branchlets are slightly ridged. [1][3]

The leaves are arranged opposite and sessile. The leaf blade are ovate and glaucescent whereas the base are cordate. The mature leaves are slightly flattened with 1.5-3 cm petiole. The leaf blade is lanceolate measuring of 15-30 x 1-2 cm, falcate, leathery in which both surfaces are glandular. The secondary veins are at an angle of 35°-40° from midvein and inconspicuous where intramarginal veins are ca. 1 mm from margin. [3]

The inflorescences of E. globulus are axillary, simple and consist of umbels with 1 or 7 flower. The peduncles are flattened or terete. Hypanthium obconic measured of ca. 1 x 1.3 cm, has surface with 4 ridges and rugose protuberances, and glaucescent. The stipe is about 0-5 mm. The calyptra is slightly flattened, with a conic tubercle in middle, shorter than calyx tube, in 2 layers with outer layer glossy and caducous. The stamens are measured of 0.8-1.3 cm and arranged in several whorls. The filaments are slender and the anther is elliptic. The styles are measured of 7-8 mm and stout. The capsule is semiglobose measuring of 0.6-2.4 cm in diameter and has 4-ridged. The disk is broad and the valves are consist of 3-5, equaling hypanthium rim or exserted. [3]

Cultivation

E. globulus has been cultivated in Fujian, Guangxi, Guizhou, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, and Zheijiang. [3]

Chemical Constituent

Essential oil of E. globulus has been reported to contain active ingredient which is piperitone and 1,8-cineole. [4][5]

Plant Part Used

Leaves [6]

Traditional Use

E. globulus essential oil is used regularly in the food and beverage industry. It is also found in topical ointments and vapour rubs. It is not regularly used in the fragrance industry. In therapeutic aromatherapy it is used as single oil and in more complex formulations for topical application or inhalation. [6]

Preclinical Data

Pharmacology

Antimicrobial activity

The anti-bacterial and anti-viral activity of E. globulus­ was tested against numerous strains of bacteria and two viral strains collected from patients suffering from upper respiratory infections. The essential oil demonstrated moderate anti-bacterial activity against several strains, and low level anti-viral activity. [7]

Essential oil extracted from the leaves of E. globulus has showed a potent antibacterial activity against several bacteria strains by its active constituent, 1,8-cineol. [8]

Essential of E. globulus has been demonstrated to exhibit antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. [9][10]

Antiviral activity

Essential oil of E. globulus demonstrated moderate antiviral activity against the herpes simplex virus at concentration of 0.03%. [11]

Anti-inflammatory activity

Essential oil of E. globulus has exhibit anti-inflammatory effects, as demonstrated by inhibition of rat paw edema induced by carrageenan and dextran, neutrophil migration into rat peritoneal cavities induced by carrageenan, and vascular permeability induced by carrageenan and histamine. [12]

E. globulus oil has been demonstrated to ameliorate inflammatory processes by interacting with aggressive oxygen radicals of the OH-type and interfere with leukocyte activation. [13]

Phagocytic activity

E. globulus essential oil (non-specified) was tested to determine its ability to stimulate cell-mediated immune response. Using human MDMs (monocyte derived macrophages) in vitro, and rat monocytes in vivo either with or without immune suppression initiated by chemotherapy, the essential oil was found to demonstrate a cell-mediated immune response. [14]

Analgesic activity

In an animal model, mice with experimentally induce pain were treated with the essential oil of E. globulus and two other species of Eucalyptus. All three species demonstrated both central and peripheral analgesic effects. [15]

Respiratory activity

The volatile aromatic of E. globlus oil has been demonstrated to exhibit surfactant-like effects, namely a decrease in surface tension between water and air and thus improved lung compliance values in vivo. [16]

Toxicity

No documentation.

Clinical Data

Clinical findings

Antibacterial activity

A human study involving patients with malodorous head and neck cancers demonstrated significant odour inhibition and improved cell integrity using E. globulus essential oil as an adjunct therapy with existing treatment. Outcomes improved quality of life. [17]

Anti-inflammatory activity

In a human study of head and neck cancers, topical application of E. globulus essential oil resulted in an observable reduction in inflammation. [17]

Thirty two patients with steroid-dependent asthma were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo controlled trial designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of 1-8 cineol. Patients given the E. globulus essential oil were able to reduce their intake of steroids at regular intervals over a 12 week period of time. [18]

Contraindications

Toxic if ingested. [19][20]

A 48 hour skin patch test on humans did not identify any skin sensitivity to E. globulus essential oil. [21]

Case Report

One case study of toxicity due to topical application has been identified in 6-year-old girl. [22]

Dosage

No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing

No documentation.

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Eucalyptus globulus Labill. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 23; cited 2016 Apr 19]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-73008.
  2. Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Volume III E-L. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 2012; p. 147.
  3. Flora of China. Eucalyptus globulus. Vol. 13. No date. [cited 2016 Apr 19]. Available from: http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200014782.
  4. Shahverdi AR, Abdolpour F, Monsef-Esfahani HR, Farsam H. A TLC Bioautographic assay for the detection of nitrofurantoin resistance reversal compound. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2007;850(1-2):528-530.
  5. Lee SE, Choi WS, Lee HS, Park BS. Cross-resistance of a chlorpyrifos-methyl resistant strain of Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Coleoptera: Cucujidae) to fumigant toxicity of essential oil extracted from Eucaplytus globulus and its major monoterpenes, 1,8-cineole. J Stored Prod Res. 2000;36(4):383-389.
  6. Lis-Balchin M. Aromatheraphy science: A guide for healthcare professionals. Great Britain: Pharmaceutical Press, 2006; p.184-189.
  7. Cermelli C, Fabio A, Fabio G, Quaglio P. Effect of Eucalyptus essential oil on respiratory bacteria and viruses. Curr Microbiol. 2008;56(1):89-92.
  8. Cimanga K, Kambul K, Tona L, et al. Correlation between chemical composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils of Some Aromatic Medicinal Plants Growing in the Democratic Republic of Congo. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;79(2):213-220.
  9. Karpanen TJ, Worthington T, Hendry ER, Conway BR, Lambert PA. Antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine digluconate alone and in combination with Eucalyptus oil, tea tree oil and thymol against planktonic and biofilm cultures of Staphylococcus epidermis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008;62(5):1031-1036.
  10. Schelz Z, Molnar J, Hohmann J. Antimicrobial and antiplasmid activities of essential oils. Fitoterapia. 2006;77(4):279-285.
  11. Schnitzler P, Schön K, Reichling J. Antiviral activity of Australian tea tree oil and Eucalyptus oil against Herpes simplex virus in cell culture. Pharmazie. 2001;56(4):343-347.
  12. Silva J, Abebe W, Sousa SM, Duarte VG, Machado MI, Matos FJ. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils of Eucalyptus. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;89(2-3):277-283.
  13. Grassmann J, Hippeli S, Dornisch K, Rohnert U, Beuscher N, Elstner EF. Antioxidant properties of essential oils. Possible explanations for their anti-inflammatory effects. Arzneimittelforschung. 2000;50(2):135-139.
  14. Serafino A, Sinibaldi Vallebona P, Andreola F, et al. Stimulatory effect of Eucalyptus essential oil on innate cell-mediated immune response. BMC Immunol. 2008;9(17).
  15. Silva J. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils of EucalyptusJ Ethnopharmacol. 2003;89(2-3):277-283.
  16. Zänker KS, Tölle W, Blümel G, Probst J. Evaluation of surfactant-like effects of commonly used remedies for colds. Respiration. 1980;39(3):150-157.
  17. Warnke PH, Sherry E, Russo PA, et al. Antibacterial essential oils in Malodorous cancer Patients: Clinical observations in 30 patients. Phytomedicine. 2006;13(7):463-467.
  18. Juergens UR, Dethlefsen U, Steinkamp G, Gillissen A, Repges R, Vetter H. Anti-inflammatory activity of 1.8-cineol (eucalyptol) in bronchial asthma: A double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Respir Med. 2003;97(3):250-256.
  19. Day LM, Ozanne-Smith J, Parsons BJ, Dobbin M, Tibballs J. Eucalyptus oil poisoning among young children: Mechanisms of access and the potential for prevention. Aust N Z J Public Health. 1997;21(3):297-302.
  20. Tibballs J. Clinical effects and management of Eucalyptus oil ingestion in infants and young children. Med J Aust. 1995;163(4):177-180.
  21. Willms RU, Funk P, Walther C. [Local tolerability of two preparations with Eucalyptus oil and pine-needle oil]. MMW Fortschr Med. 2005:147(3):109-112. German
  22. Darben T, Cominos B, Lee CT. Topical Eucalyptus oil poisoning. Australes J Dermatol. 1998;39(4):265-267.