Excoecaria cochinchinensis Lour.

Last updated: 26 Apr 2016

Scientific Name

Excoecaria cochinchinensis Lour.

Synonyms

Antidesma bicolor Hassk., Excoecaria bicolor (Hassk.) Zoll ex Hassk., Excoecaria bicolor var. orientalis (Pax & K. Hoffm.) Gagnep., Excoecaria bicolor var. purpurascens Pax & K.Hoffm., Excoecaria bicolor var. viridis Pax & K.Hoffm., Excoecaria cochinchinensis var. cochinchinensis, Excoecaria cochinchinensis var. varidis (Pax & K.Hoffm.) Merr., Excoecaria orientalis Pax & K.Hoffm., Excoecaria quadrangularis Müll.Arg., Sapium cochinchinense (Lour.) Kuntze. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Sambang darah, daun sambang, buta-buta, bebuta [2]
China Ji wei su [3]
Indonesia Ki sambang [3], daun remek daging, daun sambang darah [4],
Thailand Bai thong daeng, ka buea, kamlang krabue, krabue chet tua, krabue jed tua, lin krabue, lin krabue khao, tatum kai, tatum nok [4]
Vietnam D[ow]n t[is]a, d[ow]n l[as] d [or], m[awj]t qu[ir] [4]
Japan Sei-shi-boku [4]

Geographical Distributions

No documentation.

Botanical Description

Excoecaria cochinchinensis Lour is a member of the Euphorbiaceae family. It is a shrub having an aborous stem and raising up to 2.5 m high. [5]

The leaves are opposite, papery, lanceolate and slightly serrated with the upper surface are dark green while the under surface are deep maroon in colour. They measures of 4-15 cm x 1.5-4.5 cm. [2][5]

The flowers are dioecious in axillary or terminal racemes. The male inflorescences measure of 1-2 cm long while the female are consist of 3 to 5 flowered, slightly shorter than the male. In the male flowers the pedicels measure 1.5 mm long, bracts broad-ovate 1.7 mm long and wide, serrulate inside base biglandulose each ones 1-flowered. There are 2 bractlets that are linear measuring 1.5 mm long, lacerate-serrulate on the upper part and biglandulose at the base. The sepals are 3, lanceolate 1.2 mm long and serrulate at the apex. The styles are 3, free or more or less connate at base measuring 2.2 mm long. The stamens are exserted the calyx, anthers rounded, slightly shorter than filaments. The female flowers have strong pedicel measuring 1.5-2 mm long, bracts and bractlets as in male. [2][5]

The capsules are red in colour with three-lobed and are fleshy. The seeds are ovate, smooth and even. [5]

Cultivation

No documentation.

Chemical Constituent

E. cochinchinensis leaves extract has been reported to contain glucoside compounds (e.g. excoecariosides A and B). [6]

E. cochinchinensis root and stem extract has been reported to contain shikimic acid, 1-cyclohexene-1-carboxylic acid-5-hydroxy-3,4-isopropylidene-dioxy, oxy-bis(5-methylene-2-furaldehyde), β-sitosterol, tetracosanoic acid, palmic acid, steric acid and hentriacontane. [7]

Ethyl acetate extract of E. cohinchinensis leaves and twigs has been reported to contain diterpenoids (e.g. excolabdone A,B and C). [8]

E. cochinchinensis extract has been reported to contain (+)-epiloliolide. [9]

Plant Part Used

Roots, stems and leaves [2][3]

Traditional Use

The plant is considered hot and poisonous. It is beneficial as anti-parasitic, antipruritic, haemostatic. The latex is considered a drastic purgative the decoction of the leaves is used to treat dysentery in Indonesia. It is also being advocated for use in cases of haematemesis whence the leaves are pounded before being boiled with salt added to the decoction. It is the juice squeezed out from the leaves after being boiled that is used to treat haematemesis and not the decoction. [3]

Various parts of E. cochinchinensis is being used to treat menorrhagia and postpartum haemorrhage. In cases of menorrhagia lengths of branches are chooped into small pieces and boiled with the decoction being taken three times per day. On the other hand in post-partum haemorrhage the decoction of the roots is used. This decoction is also abortifecient and is not advisible for use during pregnancy [2][3]

The leaves of E. cochinchinensis are used to treat skin diseases like chronic eczema, psoriasis, neurodermatitis and bleeding wounds. [2][3]

Preclinical Data

Pharmacology

Antimicrobial activity

It was found the ethanolic and water extract of E. cochinchinensis, has significant antibacterial activities against Straphylococcus aureus and Propionibacterium acnes. Of the two extracts the aqueous extract exhibited profound antibacterial activity especially against the clindamycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (P31 and Fl14). [10]

Cytotoxic activity

Extract of E. cochinchinensis has been demonstrated to exhibit a potent cell-line selective cytotoxicity activity in cultured human lung, colon and stomach cancer cells. [11]

Toxicity

No documentation.

Clinical Data

No documentation.

Line drawing

No documentation.

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Excoecaria cochinchinensis Lour. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 23, cited 2016 Apr 26]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-83357.
  2. Ong HC. Tanaman hiasan: Khasiat makanan & ubatan. Siri terapi alami. Kuala Lumpur: Utusan Publications, 2006; p. 216-217.
  3. Hariana HA. Tumbuhan obat dan khasiatnya. Seri 3. Jakarta: Niaga Swadaya, 2008; p. 28-29.
  4. Quattrocchi U. CRC World dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms and etymology. Volume III E-L. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 2012; p. 204.
  5. Hong Kong Flora and Vegetation. Excoecaria cochinchinensis Lour. No date [cited 2016 Apr 26]. Available from: http://www.hkflora.com/v2/leaf/euphor_show_plant.php?plantid=1055.
  6. Giang PM, Son PT, Matsunami K, Otsuka H. New megastigmane glucosides from Excoecaria exchinchinensis Lour. var. cochinchinensis. Chem Pharm Bull. 2005;53:1600-1603.
  7. Xie JM, Chen YS, Zhao SN, Zhou XD. Studies on the chemical constituents of Excoecaria cochinchinensis Lour. var. viridis Merr. Zhongquo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1989:14(5):292-294. Chinese.
  8. Yang JH, Luo SD, Zhao JF, et al. Three new highly oxygenated diterpenoids from Excoecaria conchinchinensis Lour. Helc Chim Acta. 2005;88(5):968-973.
  9. Yamada K, Subeki, Nabeta K, Yamasaki M, Katakura K, Matsuura H. Isolation of antibacterial compounds from Brucea javanica, Curcuma xanthorrhiza, and Excoecaria cochinchinensis. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2009;73(3):776-780.
  10. Leelapornpisid P, Chansakao S, Ittiwittayawat T, Pruksakorn S. Antimicrobial activity of herbal extracts on Staphylococcus aureus and Propionibacterium acnes. Acta Hortic. 2005;679:97-104.
  11. Park G, Lee EJ, Min HY, et al. Evaluation of cytotoxic potential of Indonesian medicinal plants in cultured human cancer cells. Nat Pro Sci. 2002;8(4):165-169.