Ficus elastica Roxb. ex Hornem.

Last updated: 22 Apr 2016

Scientific Name

Ficus elastica Roxb. ex Hornem.

Synonyms

Ficus clusiifolia Summerh. [Illegitimate], Ficus cordata Kunth & C.D.Bouché [Illegitimate], Ficus elastica var. belgica L.H.Bailey & E.Z.Bailey, Ficus elastica var. benghalensis Blume, Ficus elastica var. decora Guillaumin, Ficus elastica var. karet (Miq.) Miq., Ficus elastica var. minor Miq., Ficus elastica var. odorata (Miq.) Miq., Ficus elastica var. rubra L.H.Bailey & E.Z.Bailey, Ficus karet (Miq.) King, Ficus skytinodermis Summerh., Ficus taeda Kunth & C.D.Bouché, Macrophthalma elastica (Roxb. ex Hornem.) Gasp., Urostigma circumscissum Miq. [Unresolved], Urostigma elasticum (Roxb. ex Hornem.) Miq., Urostigma karet Miq. [Unresolved], Urostigma odoratum Miq. [Unresolved], Visiania elastica (Roxb. ex Hornem.) Gasp. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Bunoh seteroh, nyatus [2], rambong, pokok getah rambong [3]
English Assam rubber, India rubber, India rubber fig, India rubber plant, India rubber tree, Indian gum-arabic tree, Indian rubber tree, rubber fig, rubber plant, snake tree [2]
China Yin du rong [2]
India Atha bor, athabor, attah bar, bor, devak-araung, dewak-araung, diengjri, goli goni, labur, nisatong, phrapramkhet, phrapnramkhet, rabbaru, rabracho-vad, sagubanka, sangria, shimayal, shimeala, simamarri, simayal, simeyala [2]
Nepal Labar [2]
Indonesia Rambung, kajai, (ki) karet [2]
Thailand Lung, yang india, yang lop [2]
Myanmar Bedi [2]
Philippines Balete [2]
Vietnam C[aa]y [dd]a [2]
Japan Indo-gomu-no-ki [2]
Okinawa Gumugii [2]
Mexico Goma elastic, higuera caucho, hule, palo de goma [2]
Portuguese Árvore da borracha, borracheira [2]
Cameroon Bikehi [2]
Ghana Amanyedua [2]

Geographical Distributions

No documentation.

Botanical Description

Ficus elastica is a member of the Moraceae family. It is a big shrub or tree. [1][4]

The leaves are large, leathery, oblong to elliptic and bluntly caudate with rounded or narrowed base. It has a prominent midrib and very fine, closely paralleled nerves. It measures 20 cm long and 13 cm wide with petioles 5 cm long. The stipules are 17 cm long and red in colour. [4]

The figs are sessile in pairs, ovate-oblong and greenish yellow in colour. They are 12 cm long. [4]

Cultivation

No documentation.

Chemical Constituent

F. elastica extract has been reported to contain ficaprenol-11, ficusamide, ficusoside, elasticoside. [5][6]

Plant Part Used

Leaves [3]

Traditional Use

Very young leaf-tips are eaten in Java in salad. In West Africa the plant is used to treat muscle and joint pains. [3]

Preclinical Data

Pharmacology

Cytotoxic activity

Ficusamide isolated from the bark of aerial roots of F. elastica showed moderate in vitro growth inhibitory activity against the human A549 lung cancer cell line. However, the methanol extract of the leaves did not show any genotoxic or cytotoxic activities. [6][7]

Antimicrobial activity

Fucosamide extracted from F. elastica was found to strongly inhibit Staphylococcus saprophyticus and elasticoside is potent against Enterococcus faecalis. [6]

Anti-inflammatory activity

The aqueous extract of F. elastica was found to inhibit both the primary and secondary lesions of adjuvant arthritis in rats. These actions are comparable to indomethacin. This activity is attributed to the probable presence of flavonoids in the extract. [8]

Toxicity

No documentation.

Clinical Data

Clinical findings

Cross-reactivity activity

In a study on cross-reactivity between latex of Hevea brasilensis and F. elastica, it was found that the 9 patients with systemic type I hypersensitivity to latex of H. brasilensis did not react to the latex of F. elastica. [9]

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing

No documentation.

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Ficus elastica Roxb. ex Hornem. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 23, cited 2016 Apr 22]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-2810307.
  2. Quattrocchi U. CRC World dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Volume III E-L. Florida: Boca Raton, 2012; p. 231.
  3. Burkill IH. A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay Peninsula. Volume 1. London: Published on behalf of the governments of the Straits settlements and Federated Malay states by the Crown agents for the colonies, 1935; p. 1024-1025.
  4. Ridley HN. The flora of the Malay Peninsula. Volume 3. London: Reeves & Co., 1923; p. 334.
  5. Tanaka Y, Takagi M. Structural characterization of ficaprenol-11 by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. Biochem J. 1979;183(1):163-165.
  6. Mbosso EJ, Nguedia JC, Meyer F, et al. Ceramide, cerebroside and triterpenoid saponin from the bark of aerial roots of Ficus elastica (Moraceae). Phytochem. 2012;83:95-105.
  7. Chichioco-Hernandez C, Wudarski J, Gevaert L, Verschaeve L. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of some Philippine medicinal plants. Pharmacogn Mag. 2011;7(26):171-175.
  8. Sackeyfio AC, Lugeleka OM. The anti-inflammatory effect of a crude aqueous extract of the root bark of “Ficus elastica” in the rat. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther. 1986;281(1):169-176.
  9. Carey AB, Cornish K, Schrank P, Ward B, Simon R. Cross-reactivity of alternate plant sources of latex in subjects with systemic IgE-mediated sensitivity to Hevea brassiliensis latex. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1995;74(4):317-320.