Ficus hispida L.f.

Last updated: 22 April 2016

Scientific Name

Ficus hispida L.f.

Synonyms

Covellia assamica Miq., Covellia courtallensis Miq., Covellia daemonum (J.Koenig ex Vahl) Miq., Covellia dasycarpa Miq., Covellia hispida (L.f.) Miq., Covellia oppositifolia (Roxb.) Gasp., Covellia setulosa Miq., Covellia wightiana Miq., Ficus caudiculata Trimen, Ficus compressa S.S.Chang, Ficus daemonum K.D.Koenig ex Vahl, Ficus fecunda Blume, Ficus goolereea Roxb., Ficus heterostyla Merr., Ficus hispida var. badiostrigosa Corner, Ficus hispida f. borneensis Miq., Ficus hispida var. incana Kuntze, Ficus hispida f. obovifolia Hochr., Ficus hispida var. viridis Kuntze, Ficus hispidioides S.Moore, Ficus letaqui H.Lév. & Vaniot, Ficus lima Royen ex Miq. [Invalid], Ficus mollis Willd. [Illegitimate], Ficus oppositifolia Willd., Ficus perinteregam Pennant, Ficus poilanei Gagnep., Ficus prominens Wall. ex Miq., Ficus sambucixylon H.Lév., Ficus scabra Jacq. [Illegitimate], Ficus simphytifolia Lam., Ficus symphytifolia Spreng., Gonosuke demonum Raf., Gonosuke hispida (L.f.) Raf., Gonosuke scaber Raf., Sycomorphe roxburghii Miq. [Unresolved]. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Ara bombing, ara bumbing, ara seniah, arasinigai, ara sungei, erumanak, kattatti, parakam, seniah, senil, seniyah [2], ara bombing, ara sungai, ara senigai, ara lempong, pokok seniah, pokok senil [3]
English Creeping fig, hsiry fig, rough-leaved stem-fig [2]
China Dui ye rong, niu nai shu [2]
India Adavi atti, ajaji, ajakshi, ashiheibong (ashi, death, heibong, fig fruits), asuma, baidimiri, bhadrodumbarika, bhokada, bhui gular, bhui-umber, bodamamidi, boikwe, bokada, bokria, brammadi, chitrabhashaja, daduri, dagurin, demburu, dhedaumaro, dhvankshanamni, dieng lapong, dimaru, dimiri, dimuri, duma, dumoor, dumoru, erumanakku, gandaumbar, gobla, gular, jaghanaphala, jaghanephala, jangliangir, kadatti, kagsha, kakadumbar, kakadumbura, kakahvanodumbari, kakodphalgu, kakodumar, kakodumbara, kakodumbare, kakodumbarika, kakodumur, kala umber, kalumber, karkashachaduna, kastodumbara, katgularia, kathgular, kharadala, kharapatrika, kharoti, kharsen, kharuti, khaskhase dumur, khoksa, kshiri, kshudrodumbarika, kursah gatcho, kushthaghni, lora, malapu, malayu, matiyal, mulakarkati, panidimiri, panthap, peiperuka, peyatti, phalguni, phalguvatika, phalu, rajika, sonatti, thiwek, tine-barri, udumbaraphala, ummettodumbara, ummiattodumbara, vettiyatthi, vitrabaisajya [2]
Nepal Kharseto, khasreto, koksa [2]
Sri Lanka Kota-dimbula [2]
Bangladesh Fahshaiba [2]
Indonesia Bisoro, luwing, mongmong [2], leluwing [3]
Thailand Duea plong, duea ong, maduea plong [2]
Laos Dua pong [2]
Vietnam Ng[as]i [2]
Tibet Dal kun a, phal ku na [2]
Australia Boombil [2]

Geographical Distributions

Ficus hispida is a small tree found in South-eastern Asia, Malaysia, Australia, Java, India, Andaman Islands, Northwestern Himalay and Madras. It usually grows in lowland forests and by streams. [3]

Botanical Description

F. hispida is a member of the Moraceae family. It is a small tree or shrub that is coarsely hairy and dioecious. It has four stipules decussating on leafless fruiting branchlets. They are ovate-lanceolate. [1][4]

The leaves are opposite, leafblade ovate, oblong or obovatye-oblong. They measure 10-25 cm x 5-10 cm, thickly papery. It has coarse gray hairs abaxially, and is rought with short thick hair adaxially. The base is rounded to cuneate, margins entire or bluntly toothed, apex acute to mucronate. Secondary veins are 6-9 on each side of the midvein. The petiole is measure 1-4 cm long with short thick hairs. [4]

The figs appears axillary on normal leafy shoots, or on leafless branchlets or branchlets from main branches. The figs are appears solitary or paired. They are yellow or red when mature, top-shaped, measuring 1.2-3 cm diameter with short scattered hairs, pedunculate. The involucres bracts are present and lateral bracts are sometimes present. [4]

The male flowers are numerous near the apical pore; calyx lobes 3, thinly membranous; stamen single. The gall flowers are without calyx, style subapical, short and thick. The female flowers are also without calyx, the style is lateral and with hairs. [4]

Cultivation

No documentation.

Chemical Constituent

Leaves and twigs of F. hispida extract have been reported to contain ficustriol and O-methyltylophorinidine. [5]

Plant Part Used

Bark, fig, leaves, fruits, roots [6][7]

Traditional Use

In Traditional Chinese medicine F. hispida is believed to clear off wind and heat, moves qi and dissipate stasis. It is also able to disperse accumulation of and transforms phlegm, fortifies spleen and eliminates dampness. In Ayurveda the bark is considered emetic and laxative while the fruit is bitter, refrigerant, astringent, acrid, antidysenteric, anti-inflammatory, depurative, vulnerary, haemostatic and galactagogue.

To the Malays the latex is sometimes given to treat diarrhea. The bark is also used to treat dysentery and diarrhea. The decoction of the bark is used to treat stomachache in children. Ayurvedic physicians highly recommend the fig for use in the treatment of jaundice.

In traditional Chinese Medicine, the plant has been recommended for use in vaginal discharge and in stopping breast milk. In India the fruits on the contrary are given as a galactagogue. In Malay Medicine the decoction of the leaves is given to aid childbirth. 

Both the Malays and the Chinese make use of this plant to treat fever. A decoction of the leaves is used to treat fever in the old Malay community. Other uses of the plant include common cold, conjunctivitis, bronchitis and painful swelling following injuries. It has also been advocated for use in treatment of haemorrhoids, epistaxis, and bleeding from gastro-intestinal tract. The fruit and root had been used to treat skin problems including leucoderma and vitiligo. [6][7][8][9]

Preclinical Data

Pharmacology

Hepatoprotective activity

The leaf extract of F. hispida was found to have the ability to reverse damage to the liver done by paracetamol and azothioprine. The elevated liver damaged biomarkers (SGOT, SGPT, Bilirubin and alkaline phosphatade were lowered significantly after treatment with the leaf extract. From observations of its effects in the case of azothioprine induced liver damage, it was concluded that the mechanism probably was through upholding the thiol homeostasis, curtling membrane effects and perpetuation of adenine nucleotide status. [10[11]

Antidiarrhoeal activity

Methanol leaf extract of F. hispida showed antidiarrhoeal activity against castor-oil induced diaerrhoea and PGE(2)-induced enteropooling in rats. [12]

Anticancer activity

A pehnanthroindolizidine alkaloid isolated from the CHCl3 extract of the leaves and twigs of F. hispida was found to be active against small panel of human cancer cells. This compound had been characterized and named O-methylophorinidine. [5]

Anticoagulate activity

A suphydryl plant protease in the latex of F. hispida was found to have the ability to increase clotting time and Erythrocyte sedimentation rate while at the same time decrease haemoglobin content, RBC count and WBC count. It also has a mild anti-inflammatory activity. [13]

Clinical Data

No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing

No documentation.

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Ficus hispida L.f. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 23, cited 2016 Apr 22]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-2810756.
  2. Quattrocchi U. CRC World dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms and etymology. Volume III E-L. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 2012; p. 234-235.
  3. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research. Compendium of medicinal plants used in Malaysia. Volume 1. Kuala Lumpur: HMRC IMR, 2002; p.348.
  4. Flora of China. Ficus hispida. No date [cited 2016 Apr 22]. Available from: http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200006361.
  5. Peraza-Sánchez SR, Chai HB, Shin YG, et al. Constituents of the leaves and twigs of Ficus hispida. Planta Med. 2002;68(2):186-188.
  6. Zhou J, Xie G, Yan X. Encyclopedia of traditional Chinese medicines - Molecular structures, pharmacological activities, natural sources and applications. Volume 5. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2011; p. 446.
  7. Warrier PK, Nambiar VPK, Ramankutty C. Indian medicinal plants: A compendium of 500 species (Vol. III). Hyderbad: Orient Longman, 1995; p.27.
  8. Burkill IH. A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay Peninsula. Volume 1. London: Published on behalf of the governments of the Straits settlements and Federated Malay states by the Crown agents for the colonies, 1935; p. 1010.
  9. Khare CP. Indian medicinal plants: An illustrated dictionary. Berlin: Springer, 2007; p. 266-267.
  10. Mandal SC, Saraswathi B, Ashok Kumar CK, Mohana Lakshmi S, Maiti BC. Protective effect of leaf extract of Ficus hispida Linn. against paracetamol-induced hepaototoxicity in rats. Phytother Res. 2000;12(6):457-459.
  11. Shanmugarajan TS, Devaki T. Hepatic perturbations provoked by azathioprine: A paradigm to rationalize the cytoprotective potential of Ficus hispida Linn. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2009;19(2):129-134.
  12. Mandal SC, Ashok Kumar CK. Studies on anti-diarrhoeal activity of Ficus hispida leaf extract in rats. Fitoterapia. 2002;73(7-8):663-667.
  13. Chetia D, Nath LK, Dutta SK. Pharmacological properties of a protease from Ficus hispida Linn. Anc Sci Life. 2001;21(2):99-110.