Jatropha integerrima Jacq.

Last updated: 06 May 2016

Scientific Name

Jatropha integerrima Jacq.

Synonyms

Adenoropium hastatum (Jacq.) Britton & P. Wilson, Adenoropium integerrimum (Jacq.) Pohl, Adenoropium pandurifolium (Andrew) Pohl, Jatropha acuminate Desr., Jatropha coccinea Link, Jatropha diversifolia A.Rich., Jatropha diversifolia var. pandurifolia (Andrews) M.Gómez, Jatropha diversifolia var. pauciflora (C.Wright ex Griseb.) M.Gómez, Jatropha glaucovirens Pax & K.Hoffm., Jatropha hastata Jacq., Jatropha integerrima var. coccinea (Link) N.P.Balakr., Jatropha integerrima var. hastata (Jacq.) Fosberg, Jatropha integerrima var. latifolia (Pax) N.P.Balakr., Jatropha moluensis Sessé & Moc., Jatropha pandurifolia Andrews, Jatropha pandurifolia var. coccinea (Link) Pax, Jatropha pandurifolia var. latifolia Pax, Jatropha pauciflora C.Wright ex Griseb. [1]

Vernacular Name

English Rose-flowered jatropha [2], spicy jatropha [3], peregrine [4][5]

Geographical Distributions

Jatropha integerrima is native to the West Indies, and especially well known from Cuba. This plant has distributed globally as ornamental plant. [3][4]

Botanical Description

J. integerrima is a member of the Euphorbiaceae family. It is a tree that could reach up to 5 m high.

The leaves are simple, alternate, oblong to obovate with lobed margins, pinnate. They are measuring between 10–20 cm long and are evergreen.

The flowers are red and showy and appear all year round. The fruits are oval measures 1–2.5 cm. [5]

Chemical Constituent

No documentation.

Plant Part Used

No documentation.

Traditional Use

No documentation.

Preclinical Data

No documentation.

Clinical Data

No documentation.

Poisonous Management

Toxic parts

Whole plant especially the seeds [4][5]

Toxin

Jatrophin (curcin), a toxalbumin causing bleeding lesions in the mouth, oesophagus, stomach, and intestine. Jatrophin (curcin), is also a violent purgative that stimulates bowel movement. The poison kills by interfering with the synthesis of protein in intestinal wall cells. [2][6]

Risk management

This plant should be kept out of reach of children. The attractive seeds could tempt toddlers into consuming it. [5]

Poisonous clinical findings

The symptoms of poisoning is similar to those of J. curcas due to the same toxin i.e. jatrophin.

The reaction time is between 15 to 20 minutes. There is difficulty in breathing, sore throat, bloating, dizziness, vomiting, diarrhoea, drowsiness, dysuria, and leg cramps. The abdominal symptoms of intense pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea may appear within an hour after ingestion. These symptoms had been attributed to the presence of cucanoleic acid in the oil.  In severe poisoning, muscular spasms and collapse may ensue and may even be fatal. Childrean are especially vulnerable because of the pleasant-tasting seeds. [2][6]

Management

There is no known antidote for jatrophin. Treatment is directed towards symptomatic relieve and correction of fluid and electrolyte balance.

Gastric lavage is done in the absence of profuse vomiting. Treated with bismuth subcarbonate and magnesium trisilicate to protect the stomach. [2][6]

Line drawing

No documentation.

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Jatropha integerrima Jacq. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 23; cited 2016 May 06]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-104678.
  2. Scott S, Thomas C. Poisonous plants of paradise: First aid and medical treatment of injuries from Hawaii’s plants. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2000; p. 86.
  3. Sims J. Curtis’s botanical magazine or, flower-garden displayed: In which the most ornamental foreign plants, cultivated in the open ground, the green-house, and the stove, are accurately represented in their natural colours. Volumes 35-36. London: Harvard University, 1812; p. 1464.
  4. Floridata Plant Encyclopedia. Jatropha integerrima. [homepage on the Internet]. c2015 [updated 2015; cited 2016 May 06]. Available from: http://floridata.com/Plants/Euphorbiaceae/Jatropha%20integerrima/818.
  5. Edward F, Gilman, Watson DG. Jatropha integerrima. Peregrina. Florida: Environmental Horticulture Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida; 1993.
  6. Turkington C, Mitchell DR. The encyclopedia of poisons and antidotes. Facts on file library of health and living. New York: Facts on File, 2010; p. 31.