Jatropha curcas L.

Last updated: 2016 Sep 09

Scientific Name

Jatropha curcas L.

Synonyms

Castiglionia lobata Ruiz & Pav., Curcas adansonii Endl., Curcas curcas (L.) Britton & Millsp. [Invalid], Curcas drastic Mart. Curcas indica A. Rich. Curcas lobata Splitg. Ex Lanj., Curcas purgans Medik., Jatropha acerifolia Salisb., Jatropha afrocurcas Pax., Jatropha condor Wall. [Invalid], Jatropha edulis Sessé, Jatropha yucatanensis Briq., Manihot curcas (L.) Crantz, Ricinoides americana Garsault [Invalid], Ricinus americanus Mill., Ricinus jarak Thunb. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Jarak, jarak puteh, jarak putih [2], pokok jarak [3], jarak belanda, jarak keling, jarak pagar, [4]
English Barbados nut, beg bug plant, big-purge nut seed, black vomit nut seed, Brazillian stinging nut, Cuban physic nut, fig nut, hell oil, physic nut tree, pig nut, purging nut tree, white physic nut bush [2][3], physic nut, purging nut [4]
China Ma feng shui [2][3]
India Advi amudam, bagbheranda, bagbherenda, baghbherende, baghrandi, baigaba, barathing, bhedra, dhala baigaba, errand, eranda-gach, erendi gabo, jangli arandi, jungle arandi, kaataamanakku, kataamanuku, kulabindi, kulajara, kulsera, lanka kaalo, lonka kaallo, madula, napalamu, nepaalamu, nerakhar-shing, pacchai kataamanuku, pagedie, parshi errand, peddaerinja, pulaso, rattan jot, ratanjot, thingthau, totkabendi, totkabindi [2]
Indonesia Balacai, jarak kosta, jarak pagar [2]
Thailand Ma-hung-hua, ma yao, sa-bu-dam, sabuu dam, salot paa, salot dam, salot yai, si lot [2][3]
Laos Nhao [4]
Philippines Galumbang, kasla, kirisol, taba, taba-taba, tagumbau, tagumbau-na-purau, takumbaw, tangan-tangan-tuba, taua-taua, tauua, tuba, tubang-bakod [3]
Cambodia Kuang, lohong [4]
Vietnam Dau lai, d[aaf]u m[ef], ba d[aaj]u nam [4]
Japan Taiwan-abura-giri [2], yatorofa kurukasu [3]
Nepal Arin, gada, gyagar desya, saimal, sajiba, sajiwa, sajiwan, saruwa [2]
Papua New Guinea Kadel, lam (Gunantuna, New Britain) [4]
Tibet Dan-rog dman-pa [2]
Turkey Mashal hind fistiği ağaci, kurkas [2]
Arabic Dand barrî, dand e barri, dand e nahri, hhabb el mulûk, habb el meluk [3]
East Africa Mbongo komo, mbono, monomwani, muaegi [2]
Southern Africa Purgeerboontjie; mafuredonga, mupfure-wa-tshikhuwa (Venda); mbono, mbono kaburi (Swahili) [2][3]
Nigeria Akporo, bi-ni-da-zugu, bin da zugu, binida zugu, binidazugu, botuje, botuje ubo, chi-ni-da-zugu, chini da zugu, dodoromi, ewe ibo, iyalode, lakose, lapa-lapa, lapalapala, lobotuje, okpokporou, olobontuje, olulu-idu, sheluju [2]
Senegal Bagani, bila naraba, delegu, duladukde, eta-manane, jakajulayi, kidi, kiedi, kulti ni fli, literog, purger, purger efiti, tabanani, tuba, yakirid, yetene [2]
Somalia Cantal-mulung [2]
Tanzania Ekio, mbogo, mbono, mbono-pwani, mkabui, mlinda kaburi [2]
Uganda Browa [2]
Zambia Nyembe [2]
Burkina Faso Bagani, billa naraba, koultini fli, ouabin bang mam [2]
Congo Mebondo, mobondo [2]
Guinea Dontyo, kadi, kiidi [2]
Ivory Coast Adibalaga, aploplo, apropro, badaguigui, bategné ni, bélia, lagani, m’popo, nakouo, propro, sacré, sakoli, sama nambo [2]
Kenya Mbogo-komo [2]
France Bagani, fève d'enfer, grand médicinier, grand pignon d'Inde, gros ricin, mancenillier béni, noix médicinale, pignon de barbarie, plante bouteille, purghère, ricin d'amérique, tuteur de vanilla [3], poughère, pignon d'Inde [4]
Germany Purgiernuß, Purgiernußbaum, Schwarzelrechnuß [3]
Portugal Andythygnaco, figo-do-inferno, manduigaçu, mandubi-guaçú, pinhão bravo, pinhão-depurga, pinhão-de-purga, pinhão-manso, , pinheiro-de-purga, pulguiera, purgante-de-cavalo, purgueira [3]
Spain Arbol de los pinones de Indias, arbol santo, avellanes purgante, frailecillo, piñón blanco, piñón de purga, tártago, tempate [3]
Central America  Bola, coquito, piñon, piñoncillo, sakilté, template, yupur [2]
Pacific Banidaki, fiki, kadel, lam, lau pata, purghere, tuitui, pakarangi, wiriwiri [2]
Hawaii Kuku’ihi, kuikui, pake [2]
Brazil Pinhoncinho [2]
Mexico Piñon purgante, sangregrado, sikil-té, yaga belape; achcuauit (Huejutla, Hidalgo); ashté, axté (Veracruz); cuauayohuachtli (Azteca); chuahuayohuiaxtli, cuauyohuatli, cuahaychuachili (Veracruz and Morelos); cuipù (Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas); nacuala, najuala, piñon (Chiapas); ni-in, xkakal-ché (Maya language, Yucatan); piñoncillo (Oaxaca, Veracruz and Chiapas); vico (Oaxaca); que-ca (Chontal I., Oaxaca); sangregrado (Sinaloa); scu-lu’u (Totonaca I., Veracruz); yaga-be-lape (Zapoteca I., Oaxaca) [2]
Madagascar Falavelona, kinampotsy, oanongo, pignon d’Inde, savoa, savoha, tanatana fotsy, tanantanampots, tanatanampotsy, tang-antang, tangantang, valavelogno, valavelona [2].

Geographical Distributions

J. curcas probably originated from Mexico and Central America, but it was introduced long ago in all tropical regions including Malaysia and some subtropical regions like Florida and South Africa. It is cultivated throughout the Malesian region, though especially in the drier areas. [4]

Botanical Description

J. curcas is a member of the Euphorbiaceae family. It is a deciduous, succulent, monoecious shrub or small tree which can reach up to 8 m tall. [4][5]

The stems arise from a thick, perennial rootstock, with watery to whitish latex. The bark is smooth, grey or reddish, shiny and peeling off in papery scales. The bark exudes pink latex if injured. [5]

The leaves are alternate, simple, stipules are minute; petiole 10-20 cm long, glabrous; the blade is broadly ovate in outline, usually shallowly 5-lobed, measuring about 7-14 x 5.5-14 cm, base shallowly or deeply cordate, apex acute, margins entire, glabrous, 5-7-veined from the base and sparsely late hairy along the veins below at first, otherwise hairless . The leaves are dark green in colour and the stalk is (3-)10-15(-20) cm long and smooth. [4][5]

The inflorescence a terminal or axillary umbel-like cyme, often paired, with a solitary female flower terminating each major axis and many male flowers on lateral branches; peduncle up to 5 cm long, hairy; bracts elliptical-lanceolate, measuring about 1 cm long, acuminate. The flower stalk is up to   5(-7) cm long. [4][5]

The flowers are unisexual, regular, greenish yellow; male flower which is greenish-yellow in colour has ovate calyx lobes, measuring about 2 mm long, petals fused in lower half, lobes oblong to ovate measure 3 mm long, disk composed of 5 free flands, stamens 8, in 2 distinct whorls, the 5 outer fused at the base, the 3 inner with filaments completely fused. The female flower is slightly bigger in size, has ovate-lanceolate calyx lobe measuring about 4-5 mm long, hairy, petals 6 mm long, free, disk composed of 5 free glands, ovary superior, ovoid-ellipoid, 3-celled, styles 3, fused at base, stigma 2-lobed, staminodes 10. [4][5]

The fruits are broadly ellipsoid capsule measuring about 2.5-3 cm x 2 cm, smooth-skinned, initially fleshy and green, turning yellow and eventually dry and black, late dehiscent, 3 seeded. [4][5]

The seeds are ellipsoid, measuring about 1-2 cm long, mottled black and coarsely pitted. [4] [5]

Cultivation

The plant was introduced to Malaysia for its non vegetable oil that has potential and promising source for fuel and as alternative to diesel. It has desirable physicochemical and performance characteristics comparable to diesel. [4]

 

15

Figure 1: The J. curcas plant.

Soil Suitability and Climate Requirement

J. curcas is a hardy plant because it withstand very well even under stress conditions. It grows on well-drained, well-aerated soils and is well adapted to low fertility. It may be found on rocky slopes, dry riverbeds and similar habitats, from sea level up to 1700 m altitude. It is however not suited to peat or poorly drained soils.  It requires the annual rainfall of about 2,000-3,000 mm for optimal growth. [6]

Field Preparation

Land Preparation

Normal operation such as land clearing, disc ploughing and rotovation have to be conducted before planting. This will eradicate the weeds and prevent disease infections. Field drainage system has to be established in areas that are easily waterlogged. Planting holes (30 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm) are prepared and 100 g each of organic fertiliser (chicken dung, ground magnesium limestone (GML) lime and triple super phosphate (TSP) are mixed with top soil in the planting holes two weeks before planting. [6]

Production of Planting Materials

In Malaysia, J. curcas is normally propagated by using seeds. The seeds should be obtained from fully matured fruits (yellow to brown in colour). Drying of the seeds for 3 to 4 weeks is very necessary since it can helps to break seed dormancy. The seeds will germinate at 1 to 2 weeks after sowing. The seedlings are ready for transplanting when it attains the height of about 20 to 25 cm. [6]

15fig2

Figure 2: The seedlings ready for field planting.

Field Planting

The recommended planting distance is 2 metres between plants and 3 metres between rows giving a population density of about 1,660 plants/ha. To avoid the transplanting shock, field planting should be done at the beginning of the rainy season. Supplemented irrigation is required if transplanting is done during the dry season. [6]

 

15fig3

Figure 3: Field planting of J. curcas on alluvial soils.

 

Field Maintenance

Fertilisation

The fertilisers that are recommended are chicken dung, NPK (15:15:15) and NPK (12:12:17:2). Chicken dung at the rate of 1 kg/plant should be given twice a year. NPK (15:15:15) on the other hand should be given at the rate 100 g/plant at 3 months intervals. The NPK (12:12:17:2) should be given at the rate of 300 g/plant at 4 months intervals from year two onwards. [6]

Weed Control

Manual weeding or rotor tillage operations between rows can helps to eradicate weed during the early crop growth.  If there is a need to use chemicals, only the contact herbicides are recommended. [6]

Water Management

Generally, J. curcas is tolerant to water stress. However for optimum growth, irrigation is required during the dry season for the first two years after transplanting. [6]

Pest and Disease Control

The main insect pest of J. curcas is leaf miner (Stomphastis sp.). The pest attacks both at the nursery and field stage. It feeds on the leaf tissues between the two epidermises. The serious infestations will results in the drying of the leaves and falls off. The leaf minor is controlled by pruning and defoliating heavily infected plants. [6]

Harvesting

The plant starts to bear at about 4 months after field planting. The fruits are ready to be harvested when it turns yellow. The fruiting and maturing of the fruits are not synchronised. Thus, harvesting was done manually where the selection of only the matured fruits can be made. Harvesting should be done once a week. The accumulative potential yield of a three year old J. curcas is about 4.0 t/ha of seeds. [6]

 

15fig4

Figure 4: The J. curcas fruits turn yellow as it matures.

Postharvest Handling

The post harvest handling activities includes the separation of seeds from the fruits and drying of the seeds. Machines can be used to separate the seeds from the fruits. The seeds should be dried under the sun until the moisture content is less than 10%. The fully dried seeds can be stored at least for 9 months. [6]

 

15fig5

Figure 5: Machines are used to separate the seeds from the fruits.

 

Estimated Cost of Production

The total cost of production for a 3 year old plant is about RM 15,000. This cost covers the cost of the planting materials, agricultural inputs and the labour costs for planting, crop maintenance and harvesting. Harvesting is one of the major components of labour costs. For a total yield of about       4 t/ha, the cost of production for a kilogram of the seeds is about RM 3.75. The cost of production was estimated based on the current inputs cost during writing of this article. [6]

Chemical Constituent

Hexane extract of J. carcus aerial parts has been reported to contain diterpenoids (e.g. tetradecyl-(E)-ferulate, 3-O-(Z)-coumaroyl oleanolic acid, heudelotinone, epi-isojatrogrossidione, 2-alpha-hydroxy-isojatrogrossidione, 2-methyanthraquinone, jatropholone A, and B, curcusone A, B, C, and D, jatrophol, scopaletin, heudelotinone, 15-epi-(4E)-jatrograssidentadien, isojatrogrossidione). [7]

Methanolic extract of J. carcus leaves has been reported to contain flavanoids (e.g. 6,6"-di-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside-methylene-(8,8")-biapigenin, apigenin 7-O-beta-D-neohesperidoside, apigenin 7-O-beta-D-galactoside, orientin, vitexin, vicenin II, apigenin). [8]

The leaves extract of J. carcus has been also reported to contain 22,23-dihydro-stigmasterol, alpha-tocopherol, beta-amylin and dotriacontanol. [9]

Unspecified extract of J. carcus has been reported to contain arachidic acid, behenic acid, curcain, curcasin, curcacycline A, curcin, gadoleic acid, jatrocurin, lignoceric acid, linoleic acid, margaric acid, margaroleic acid, myristic acid, nobiletin, nurvonic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, pentadecanoic acid and stearic acid. [5]

Plant Part Used

Fresh stem, stem bark, leaves, seeds, seed oil, roots, root bark, latex, leaf sap. [5][10][11]

Traditional Use

Fresh stems are used as chew sticks to strengthen the gums and to cure bleeding, spongy gums or gum boils while stem bark is applied over wounds of animal bites. [5][11]

The leaves extraction can be used to promote lactation and is given to women after delivery for this purpose. Leaves are also applied on wounds and in decoction they are used against malaria in Mali and Madagascar, while in Benin and Réunion a decoction is taken against hypertension. Besides, the leaves are traditionally used to treat diarrhoea, coughs, eczema and ulcers. The leaf sap is taken internally to treat haemorrhoids [4][5][6][11][12][13][14][15]

The seed oil of J. carcus has many functions to treat disease. For example, oleum ricini majoris extracted from the seeds can be used as a purgative and to expel intestinal parasites. The oil is applied externally and internally as an abortifacient, and externally as a rubefacient to treat rheumatic disorder and a variety of skin infections. The oil extract is also used as an active ingredient in hair conditioners. [5][11]

The roots decoction of J. carcus has been used in folk medicine to cure diarrhoea and gonorrhoea. The dried pulverized root bark is made into poultices and given internally to expel intestinal worms and as a remedy for jaundice. The root bark also can be used to treat sores. [5][11]

The latex is reputed for it wound healing properties, a haemostatic and cure for skin problems. It is applied externally treat infected wounds, ulcers, ringworm, eczema, dermatomycosis, scabies. As a styptic it is used to treat pains and stings of bees and wasps. The latex from the bark is used to treat insect bites. [4][6][11][12][13][14][15]

In Madagascar, the leaves and roots decoction is used to treat malaria. [5]

Preclinical Data

Pharmacology

Tumour promoters activity

Methanol extract of J. curcas seed oil was exhibited tumor promoting activity by induced ornithine decarboxylase in mouse skin and inhibit the specific binding of 3H-12-O-tetradecanolyphorbol-13-acetate to a particulate fraction of mouse skin. After initiation with 7,12-dimethlybenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), the irritant factor was found to induce tumors in the skin of 36% of the mice tested in 30 weeks, while the irritant factor alone induce 13% in 30 weeks. [16]

A new type of phorbol ester, 13,16-diester of 12-deoxy-16-hydroxyphorbol, 12-deoxy-16-hydroxyphorbol-4'-[12',14'-butadienyl]-6'-[16',18',20'-nonatrienyl]-bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-(13-O)-2'-[carboxylate]-(16-O)-3 '- [8'-butenoic-10']ate (DHPB) isolated from the seed oil of J. curcas was found to induce ornithine decarboxylase in mouse skin (2.8 nmol CO2/30 min/mg protein/34 nmol application), suppressed the specific binding of [3H]-12-O-tetradecanolyphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) to phorbol ester receptors (50% effective dose, 17.0 nM), and stimulated protein kinase C in vitro (50% effective dose, 36.0 nM). DHPB also showed tumor-promoting activity in mouse skin by initiation with 100 µg of 7,12-dimethlybenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) for one week, topical application, twice a week, of 2 µg of DHPB until week 17, followed by application of 5 µg of DHPB until week 30 at the same rate, resulted in 46.7% incidence of tumors by week 30. [17]

Antitumor activity

Curcin isolated from the seed of J. curcas showed strong antitumor activity by inhibited the cell-free protein synthetic system from rabbit reticulocyte with an IC50 (95% confidence limits) values of 0.19 (0.11-0.27) nmol/L. The cytotoxic activity of IC50 (95% confidence limits) of curcin on SGC-7901, Sp2/0, and human hepatoma was 0.23 (0.15-0.32) mf/L, 0.66 (0.35-.097) mg/L, 3.16 (2.74-3.58) mg/L respectively. [18]

An experiment conducted also showed that curcin that isolated from the seed of J. curcas possessed a potent antitumor activity by using a recombinant protein from rabbit reticulocyte lysate system. The plasmid of curcin was inserted into Esherichia coli strain M15, and the recombinant strain was induced to express by isopropyl-ß-D-thiogalactopyranoside at a concentration of 0.5 mM. The target protein was incubated with the tumor cells at different concentrations of different times and the results demonstrated that the target protein could inhibit the growth of tumor cells (NCL-H446, SGC-7901 and S180) at 5 µg/ml. [19]

A diterpene, curcusone B, isolated from J. curcas showed ability to suppress metastatic processes at doses that are non-toxic to cells in 4 human cancer cell lines. This is expressed in the form of strong reduction of in vitro invasion, motility and secretion of matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP) of the cancer cells together with reduction in the adherence ability to a mitragel coated surface. [20]

Wound healing activity

Hexane extract of J. curcas seed oil and microcurrent stimulated the healing of wounds induced in Wistar rats which resulted in significantly (p < 0.05) different in term of repair area, total number of cells, number of newly formed blood vessels, epithelial thickness, and percentage of area occupied by mature collagen fibers compared to untreated control, 14 days after injury. [21]

A study in Balb/c mice skin found that single dose treatment with 10%, 50%, or 100% and the multiple dose treatment with dilutions between 5% and 10%, have a healing effect but only on males. Multiple dose treatment with 50% or pure undiluted latex produced caustic lesions on treated skin. [22]

Crude bark extract of J. curcas has accelerated wound healing process in Wistar albino rats. Result obtained indicated that (2 and 4 ml/kg) body weight significantly (p < 0.05) increase the skin breaking strength, granulation tissue breaking strength, wound contraction, dry granulation tissue weight and hydroxyproline levels. A significant decrease in epithelization period was observed in both dosages. Histopathological examination of the granulation tissue showed advanced phase of healing with more collagen, which has organized to from bundles. [23]

Abortificient activity

Methanol, petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts of the fruit of J. curcas administered orally to pregnant rats exhibits abortion for varying period of times. The results obtained showed that the interruption of pregnancy occurred at an early stage of implantation with effects observable when given from 6th to 8thday of pregnancy. Other findings include significant loss of weight in treated animals and marked toxicity with some extracts when given over a comparatively long period of about 10 days. [24]

Antiviral activity

Methanol and aqueous extract of J. curcas leaves was investigated to possess anti-HIV activity. Results obtained indicated that post-infection (4 isolates) interaction studies showed IC50 values ranging from 0.0255-0.4137 mg/mL and 0.0—73-0.1278 mg/mL for aqueous and methanolic extracts respectively and pre-infection (1 isolate) interaction studied showed 100% inhibition by methanolic and 97.19% inhibition by aqueous extract at 25 mg/mL each. [25]

Antibacterial activity

The sap and crushed leaves extract of J. curcas were investigated for their effect as antiparasitic properties. Study found that the sap has germicidal actions on the growth of common bacteria Staphylococcus, Bacillus and Micrococcus species on contact and the effects remained up to six hours after initial application. [26]

Antihelmintic activity

A study showed that the ova of Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus incubated in 50% and 100% concentration of J. curcas sap at room temperature showed either no evidence of embryonation after 21 days in the case of Ascaris lumbricoides, negation of hatchability in hookworm or complete distortion in both. [26]

Coagulant and anticoagulant activity

Ethyl acetate and butanol extract of J. curcas latex significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the clotting time of human blood. Studies on the coagulant and anticoagulant activities of this latex and found that the concentrated sap reduced the clotting time of human blood while the diluted sap on the other hand prolonged clotting time and at high dilutions the blood did not clot at all. This is confirmed by the prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). They found that upon fractionation, the ethyl actate fraction exhibited a procoagulant activity, while the butanol fraction had the highest anticoagulant activity. The residual aqueous fraction had no significant effect on the clotting time of blood and the PT but slightly prolonged the APTT. [27]                                                

Toxicity

Acute toxicity

Phorbol ester (2.4% toxic fraction) isolated from the oil of J. curcas showed acute toxicity towards rats by 6 ml/kg of the body weight. When applied to skin of rabbits and rats, it produced a severely irritant reaction followed by necrosis; in mice, this fraction had a dermally toxic and lethal effect. The oil and the toxic fraction at 25 and 1mg respectively in 10ml saline showed haemolytic activity, disrupting red blood cells. They recommended detoxification processes to be done before its use in industrial applications or in human medicine. [28]

It also showed that the phorbol ester isolated from the oil of J. curcas caused acute toxicity to Swiss Hauschka mice. Oral doses of methanol extract of J. curcas oil showed that ≥32.40 mg/kg body mass caused prominent lesions mainly found in lung and kidney, with diffused haemorrhages in lung, and glomerular sclerosis and atrophy in kidney and multiple abruption of cardiac muscle fibres and anachromasis of cortical neurons at the highest dose of 36.00 mg/kg body mass. [29]

Clinical Data

Clinical findings

No documentation

Precautions

No documentation

Side effects

No documentation

Pregnancy/Breast Feeding

The use of J. curcas to induce abortion is reported above. Animal studies of methanol extracts from stem bark showed that it has marked abortifacient effects; and glycosides, tannins, saponins and alkaloids were found to be responsible for this effect. [30]

Age limitation

No documentation

Adverse reaction

No documentation

Interaction & Depletion

Interaction with drug

Patients on anticoagulant therapy should not consume this drug as it may potentiate the action of anticoagulants or may nullify the effects. [31]

Interaction with other Herbs

No documentation

Contraindications

No documentation

Case Report

No documentation

Dosage

Dosage Range

No documentation

Most Common Dosage

No documentation

Standardisation

No documentation

Poisonous Management

Toxic parts

Whole plant. [32]

Toxin

Jatrophin (curcin), a violent purgative that stimulates bowel movement, a dermatitis producing resin, a purgative oil, and a glycoside. The poison kills by interfering with the synthesis of protein in intestinal wall cells. The seeds can be eaten if thoroughly roasted to remove the poison. [32][33][34]

Risk management

In the past J. curcas has been used as live fencing in villages, but today it is not a popular plant in urban and rural gardens anymore. It only poses dangers in areas where it is being grown in plantations for the production of biodiesel. Workers of such plantations should be made aware of the dangers of this plant and should be instructed to be cautious when handling them. [5]

Poisonous clinical findings

Reaction time is between 15 to 20 minutes. Difficulty in breathing, sorethroat, bloating, dizziness, vomiting, diarrhoea, drowsiness, dysuria, and leg cramps. The abdominal symptoms of intense pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea may appear within an hour after ingestion. These symptoms had been attributed to the presence of cucanoleic acid in the oil.  In severe poisoning, muscular spasms and collapse may ensue and may even be fatal. Children are especially vulnerable because of the pleasant-tasting seeds. [32][33][35]

Management

Gastric lavage is often done unless vomiting has been extensive. Treated with bismuth subcarbonate and magnesium trisilicate to protect the stomach. There is no known antidote for curcin. There has not been any report of fatality published. All patients recovered well after conservative and supportive therapy. [32]

Line drawing

 

15fig6

Figure 6: The line drawing of J. curcas [3]

References

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