Phyllanthus emblica L.

Last updated: 20 Oct 2016

Scientific Name

Phyllanthus emblica L.

Synonyms

Cicca emblica (L.) Kurz, Diasperus emblica (L.) Kuntze, Dichelactina nodicaulis Hance, Emblica arborea Raf., Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Phyllanthus glomeratus Roxb. ex Wall. [Invalid], Phyllanthus mairei H.Lév., Phyllanthus mimosifolius Salisb., Phyllanthus taxifolius D.Don. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Asam melaka, laka, laka laka, Melaka, pokok Melaka [2]
English Emblic, emblic myrobalan, emblic myrobalan tree, Indian gooseberry, Malacca tree, myrobalan [2]
China An mo le, yu gan zi [2]
India Aamla, aaola, aawla, aamalakamu, aamalaki, adiphala, ahallya goch, akara, amala, amalagam, amalaka, amalakam, amalaki, amamalakam, amla, amlaki, amlika, amraphala, amrita, amritaphala, amrul, amruthaphala, angaw, anula, aonla, aoula, asereki, assereki, avula, awnl, bahuphali, bettanelli, chyahkya, dhatri, dhatrika, dhat-riphala, htaky, isurkaya, jatiphala, karshaphala, kayastha, khulhu, kokkam, konkal, konkam, korankam, korankami-kam, korankamikamaram, kotam, kotimukakkini, kotim-ukakkinimaram, kupu-u-toh, kupu-utoh, lalli, makanti, makantika, makantikam, malainelli, mamalakam, mamalak-kay, mankantikamaram, meral, miral, miruntu, mirutupala, mirutupalamaram, mitintu, mituntumaram, monj, nalli, nayi nelli, nelli, nelli kaaya, nellikai, nellimara, nelmara, nilika, nilli, onla, oosree, pancharasa, parvakeeta, pedda usirika, peddavusirika, rochini, shadarasa, shanta, shiva, shriphala, shriphali, singair, suam, sun-hlu, tamalaikkay, tantiri, tattari, tattili, tattinimaram, tattirimaram, tattiripalai, tattiripalam, tecomantaram, teconmantiram, tecomaram, thalu, tiriciyam, tiriciyapalam, tishya, toppi, totti, tottiki, tottikimaram, triphala, tuppunelli, tuttarikam, usari, usarika, userakee, useri, userikai,usiri, usirika, usirikaaya, usirikaya, usiriki, usiuka, usri, usrikayi, vanamalakam, vayastha, vrishya, vrit-taphala, vusirika, vusirikaya, yankoram, yantikoram [2]
Nepal Amala, amba, aonla, ghwarmeth, korosi, kyun, meral, tigi [2]
Lepcha Barong paot [2]
Tibetan Skyurura [2]
Indonesia Kemloko, ki malaka, malaka [2]
Thailand Emblic, kam thuat, kan-tot, ma-khaam pom, mang-lu [2]
Laos Khaam poomz, mak kham pom [2]
Myanmar Ta-sha-pen (Burma) [2]
Philippines Nelli [2]
Cambodia Karn lam, kam lam ko, kântûët préi [2]
Vietnam B[oo]ng ng[os]t, chu me, kam lam, kham, me rung, me r[uwf]ng [2].

Geographical Distributions

Phyllanthus emblica is native to tropical South-East Asia, from India, Nepal and Pakistan to Burma (Myanmar), Indo-China, southern China, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, Java, the Lesser Sunda Islands and the Moluccas. [3]

Botanical Description

P. emblica is a member of Euphorbiaceae family. [4] It is a monoecious, small to medium-sized tree up to 15(-25) m tall with phyllanthoid branching. The bole often crooked and gnarled, up to 35 cm in diameter, bark thin, grey, smooth, and flaking. The cataphylls are inconspicuous and scarious. Their stipules are triangular-ovate. It have deciduous branchlets that are (5-)10-25(-30) cm long, with   (15-)30-100(-150) leaves. [3]

The leaves are subsessile, narrowly oblong, measures of 12-20 mm x 2-5 mm, slightly oblique and subcordate at base. The margin and tip almost inflexed, stipules triangular; proximal axils of deciduous branchlets with reduced leaves and cymules of male flowers followed by cymules of 1-2 female flowers surrounded by several male ones, distal part sterile or rarely reduced. [3]

The flowers are pale green, with 6 calyx-lobes; male flowers with 6 disk segments, stamens 3, filaments entirely connate, anthers free, minutely apiculate, dehiscing vertically; female flowers subsessile, with cup-shaped, 6-ribbed disk enclosing the ovary, styles shortly connate, mostly twice bifid. [3]

The fruit is drupaceous, tardily dehiscent, depressed globose, in wild plants 13-25 mm x 23-30 mm, in cultivated ones up to 42 mm in diameter, pale green becoming yellowish-white, smooth. [3]

The seeds are smooth. [3]

Cultivation

P. emblica is widely cultivated for its fruits throughout its natural area of distribution, in India since time immemorial, and also in the West Indies, Japan, the Mascarene Islands and Sri Lanka, where it is doubtfully native. [3]

Chemical Constituent

The leaves and branches of P. emblica extract has been reported to contain two new acylated flavanone glycosides (e.g. (S)-eriodictyol 7-O-(6”-O-trans-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside and (S)-eriodictoyl 7-O-(6”-O-galloyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside) phenolic glycoside (e.g. 2-(2-methylbutyryl)phloroglucinol 1-O-(6’-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside) as well as 22 known compounds (e.g. naringenin, eriodictyol, kaempferol, dihydrokaempferol, quercetin, naringenin 7-O-glucoside, naringenin 7-O-(6”-O-galloyl)-glucoside, naringenin 7-O-(6”-O-trans-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside, myricetin 3-O-rhamnoside, 2-(2-methylbutyryl)-phloroglucinol 1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, (-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate, 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, 1,2,4,6-tetra-O- galloyl-β-D-glucose, 1,2,3,4,5-penta- O- galloyl-β-D-glucose, decarboxyellagic acid, eriodictoyl 7-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, rutin, 3-O-methylellagic acid 4’-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, and tuberonic acid glucoside). [5]

Aqueous extract of P. emblica fruit juice has been reported to contain six phenolic constituents namely L-malic acid 2-O-gallate, mucic acid 2-O-gallate, mucic acid 1,4-lactone 2-O-gallate, 3-O-gallate, 5-O-gallate, and 3,5-di-O-gallate. [6]

The P. emblica roots has been reported to contain four ester glycosides, named phyllemblicin A-D, and phyllemblic acids A and B, together with two phenolic glycosides, 2-carboxymethylphenol 1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and 2,6-dimethoxy-4-(2-hydroxyethyl)phenol 1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. [7]

The aerial parts of P. emblica has been reported to contain six ellagitannins, phyllemblinins A-F, the fruit juice consists of organic acid gallates, L-malic acid 2-O-gallate, mucic acid 2-O-gallate, 1-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, corilagin, chebulagic acid, elaeocarpusin and putranjivain A. [7]

The branches and leaves of P. emblica has been reported to contain geraniin, phyllaemblinins C and E, prodelphinidin B1, prodelphinidin B2, (-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate, and (S)-eriodictyol 7-[6-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl]-β-D-glucoside. [7]

Further work on the aqueous acetone extract of the P. emblica roots led to the isolation of a major component, proanthocyanidin polymer phyllemtannin. [7]

The roots of P. emblica has been reported to contain corilagin [β-1-O-galloyl-3,6-(R)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-D-glucose] and 1,6-di-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose. [8]

P. emblica fruit has been reported to contain vitamin C, pectin, polyphenol compounds, gallic acid, ellagic acid, corilagin, phyllantidine, phyllantine and ascorbic acid. [9]

Other chemicals present in P. emblica which include minerals and amino acids are alanine, arginine, ascorbic acid, aspartic acid, astragalin, β-carotene, β-sitosterol, boron, calcium, chebulagenic acid, chloride, curcuminoides, copper, corilagic acid, cystin, D-fructose, D-glucose, gallic acid ethyl ester, gallo-tannin, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, iron, isoleucine, leucine, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, lupenone, lysine, magnesium, manganese, methionine, myo-inositol, myristic acid, niacin, nitrogen, oleic acid, palmitic acid, pectin, phenylalanine, phosphorus, phyllemblin, phyllemblinic acid, polysaccharides, potassium, proline, protein, riboflavin, serine, silica, sodium, starch, stearic acid, sucrose, sulfur, terchebin, thiamin, threonine, trigalloyl-glucose, tryptophan, tyrosine, valine, zeatin-nucleotide, zeatin-riboside, [10] punigluconin, pedunculagin, emblicanin A and emblicanin B [11].

Plant Part Used

Fruit, root, bark, leaf, seed, [4] flower [12].

Traditional Use

P. emblica acts as a laxative, a carminative, a stomachic, an emetic, an astringent, an aperient, a hypoglycemic agent and a cardioprotectant. It is used to treat aging and general debility, peptic disease and non-ulcer dyspepsia. [4]

The P. emblica fruits either fresh or dried or stewed act as a tonic, a diuretic and a laxative. The fruits are useful in treating diabetes, cough, asthma, bronchitis, intermittent fevers and cardiac disorders. Furthermore, it is used to address anaemia, emaciation, strangury, haemorrhages, leucorrhoea, menorrhagia, erysipelas, skin disorders, leprosy, inflammations and premature greying. In India, the extract of the fruit is ingested to relieve dyspepsia. It is also taken to treat colic, flatulence, hyperacidity, peptic ulcer, haematemesis, diarrhoea, dysentery, anorexia, haemorrhoids, intestinal inflammation and constipation. The exudation from incisions made into the fruit is used as a collyrium in inflammatory eye conditions, as in conjunctivitis. The fermented liquor from the fruit is given to treat jaundice, dyspepsia and coughs. The fresh fruit is a laxative and is also used as poultices. In Ambon, the dried fruit is used to arrest dysentery. The poultice is applied on the head to heal headache and vertigo. The fruit is commonly used in the treatment of burning sensations in the body. [4]

The root of P. emblica is said to be an emetic. The root bark is useful in treating ulcerative stomatitis. The bark is useful in treating gonorrhoea, jaundice, diarrhoea and myalgia. The extract of the fresh bark, mixed with honey and turmeric, is given to treat gonorrhoea. Syrup of the plant mixed with lemon juice is used to treat dysentery. [4]

A decoction of the leaves of P. emblica is taken by Malays to treat fever. The leaves are also useful in treating conjunctivitis, inflammation, dyspepsia, diarrhoea and dysentery. The infusion of the leaf with fenugreek seeds is given to relieve chronic diarrhoea. [4]

The seeds of P. emblica are used to treat asthma and abdominal disorders. The powdered seeds are used to treat asthma, bronchitis and biliousness. [4]

Preclinical Data

Pharmacology

Antiproliferative activity

The antiproliferative activity of nineteen compounds, which are the main constituents obtained from P. emblica, was determined by a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MMT) assay, using three tumor cell lines, MK-1, HeLa, and B16F10 cells. All the phenolic compounds showed strong inhibition against B16F10 cell growth at a concentration of less than 68mg/ml compared to HeLa and MK-1 cell growth. Norsesquiterpenoid glycosides, phyllemblicins B and C, exhibited significant inhibitory effects on the three tumor cell lines, in the order: B16F10> HeLa > MK-1. Compounds with a galloyl or pyrogalloyl moiety showed higher activity than the flavonoid. The results suggest that such compounds are worthy of consideration as a potential cancer chemopreventive agent. [7]

Anti-atherogenic activity

The anti-atherogenic activity of two soluble tannins of the herb P. emblica, corigalin and its analogue was studied to ascertain whether the mechanism of the effect is associated with oxidized-low density lipoprotein factor. It was found that both compounds were effective in inhibiting the progress of atherosclerosis by alleviating oxidation injury and by inhibiting ox-LDL-induced rat vascular smooth muscular cells proliferation. [8]

Antiulcerogenic activity

A methanolic extract of P. emblica fruits, quantified for emblicanin A and B, and gallic acid, was investigated for its potential antiulcerogenic activity. The effect was assessed in different acute gastric ulcer models in rats induced by aspirin, ethanol, cold restraint stress and pyloric ligation and also healing effect in chronic acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers in rats. The experimental study managed to establish the ulcer protective and healing effects of the herb in different models and the activity seems to be due to both offensive and defensive mucosal factors. [13]

Antipyretic activity

A study to evaluate the ethanol and aqueous extracts of P. emblica fruits for possible anti-pyretic in several experimental models reveals that a single dose of 500 mg/kg caused a significant lowering in rectal temperature of hyperthermic rats, comparable to that of aspirin. Furthermore, the same dosage of the extracts also caused an inhibition on writhing produced by acetic acid when administered intra-peritoneally in mice. [14]

Gastroprotective activity

Ethanolic extract of P. emblica has been reported to exhibit gastroprotective activity. Results obtained demonstrate that the ethanolic extract of the herb is significantly inhibited the basal gastric secretion and ulcerogenicity induced by pylorus ligation, indomethacin and noxious chemicals and by hypothermic restraint stress in rats. [15]

Antioxidant activity

The butanol extract of the water soluble fraction of P. emblica fruits has been reported to exhibit antioxidant activity that could have effect on gastric ulcer in rat models for 10 consecutive days. Thereafter, after 48h fasting they were given indomethacine to induce gastric ulceration for 2 consecutive days. The group of rats pre-treated with the butanol extract of the water soluble fraction of P. emblica fruits exhibited virtually no ulceration while the indomethacine-induced ulcerated group of rats showed a number of perforations with blood spots. All the experimental evidences point to the fact that the butanol extracts of the water soluble fraction of P. emblica fruits exerts cytoprotective action on gastric ulcer formation predominantly by its anti-oxidant property. [16]

A comparison study was carried out on different proportions of free and bound phenolic antioxidants in P. emblica and Curcuma longa. This study was carried out on free and bound fractions of ethyl acetate extracts of P. emblica to eliminate the possibility of interference from the water-soluble ascorbic acid. The P. emblica free and bound phenolics showed four- to ten-fold levels of antioxidant activity as evaluated by both free radical scavenging and reducing power assays compared to that of C. longa free and bound phenolics. The results indicate that the antioxidant activity of free and bound phenolic extracts of P. emblica was contributed predominantly by phenolic acids. [17]

Emblicanin A and emblicanin B enriched fraction of fresh juice of P. emblica fruits that was extracted with aqueous methanol fraction has been investigated to exhibit antioxidant effect on cardiac ischaemic-reperfusion induced (IRI) oxidative stress in rat heart. The extract of P. emblica tannoids (EOT) and vitamin E (VE, as standard oxidising agent) were administered orally twice daily for 14 consecutive days prior to the perfusion experiments. The results demonstrated that EOT and VE significantly reversed the effects of IRI on major anti-oxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) activities. This study supports the claim that anti-oxidants may be cardioprotective agents. [18]

Hypolipidaemic activity

A study specifically aimed to investigate the hypolipidaemic or antiatheroscerotic action of P. emblica fruit juice in cholesterol-fed rabbits was carried out. The result shows that the administration of 5ml/kg body weight per rabbit for 60 days reduced serum cholesterol by 82%, while serum LDL, TG and phospholipids were decreased by 90%, 66% and 77%, respectively. P. emblica juice-fed rabbits excreted more cholesterol and phospholipid, suggesting that the mode of absorption was affected. [19]

Hepatoprotective activity

A study on the protective effect of P. emblica and Chyavanaprash extract, using CCl4 induced liver injury in rats, was carried out to determine the effect on lipid peroxidation and fibrosis. The result showed that the various biochemical changes produced in the liver and serum by acute and chronic CCltoxicity were reversed or protected by the administration of both extracts. [20]

The protective effects of P. emblica extract on ethanol-induced rat hepatic injury and its possible mechanism were investigated. The rats repeatedly treated with ethanol developed significant hepatic damage as observed from elevated serum level of AST, ALT, STG, TNF alpha and IL-1 beta together with centrilobular fatty changes and degeneration in the liver. The study suggests that the hepatoprotective mechanism of the herb extract may involve its anti-oxidant activity against the production of ROS. [21]

A hydroalcoholic (50%) extract of P. emblica fruit (EO-50) reduced the severity of hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and thioacetamide (TAA). Improved liver function was observed by measuring the levels of aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin in serum. [22]

Aqueous extract of P. emblica treatment at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight per os (p.o.) for 10 days resulted in the modulation of immunological parameters in normal as well as cyclophosphamide (CP) (50 mg/kg)-treated animals. Plant extract in particular was very effective in reducing CP-induced suppression of humoral immunity. Plant extract treatment in normal animals modulated certain antioxidants of kidney and liver. [23]

Immunomodulatory activity

P. emblica fruit extract has been reported to exhibit immunomodulatory activity using rat splenocytes as model system. In this study an immunosuppressant agent, chromium (Cr) was used to enhance cytotoxicity, produce free radical, decrease glutathione peroxidase activity and diminish glutathione levels in cell culture of lymphocytes isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats. The cells were incubated with the P. emblica fruit extracts and chromium. Results show that the presence of ethanol extract of P. emblica fruits did not only increase lymphocytes proliferation but even restored the interleukin production. The P. emblica fruit extract also inhibited both cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by chromium. [24]

A study has been undertaken to determine the immunomodulatory effects of P. emblica and Evolvus alsinoides extracts in adjuvant induced arthritic (AIA) rat model. AIA is an erosive autoimmune polyarthritis involving both humoral and cell mediated responses that resemble human rheumatoid arthritis (RA).  The right hind footpad of all animals which were injected with Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) developed severe inflammation within 24 h. There was reduction in swelling and redness of inflamed areas when crude extracts of the fruits of P. emblica or E. alsinoides were administered intraperitoneally. Both the herbal extracts were able to suppress the lymphocyte proliferation in response to AIA. The results of the study suggest that the extracts of P. emblica or E. alsinoides may provide an alternative approach to the treatment of arthritis. [25]

Anticancer activity

Aqueous extract of P. emblica fresh fruit has been demonstrated antitimour activity in L 929 cells in a dose dependent manner. The results indicated that the aqueous extract at a concentration of 16.5 mg/ml was found to inhibit the growth of 50% of L929 cells significantly in culture. The P. emblica extract was also found to significantly reduce solid tumours induced by Dalton lymphoma ascites (DLA) cells while having only a moderate effect on ascites tumour. The study also showed that the P. emblica extract was found to inhibit cell cycle regulating enzymes cdc 25 phosphatase in a dose dependent manner indicating that the antitumour activity of P. emblica may be due to its interference with cell cycle regulation. [26]

Extracts of P. emblicaPhyllanthus amarus and Picrorrhiza kurroa significantly inhibited hepatocarcinogenesis induced by N-nitroso-diethylamine (NDEA) in a dose dependent manner in rats. When NDEA was administered simultaneously with either P. emblica or P. amarus or P. kurroa, all three herbal extracts showed effective protection of the liver from NDEA action as shown by the reduced levels of tumour marker enzymes and liver injury markers. [27]

Aqueous extract of herbal combination, including P. emblica has been reported to exhibit anticancer activity in both cellular and in vivo model. Result obtained shows a significant decrease in the survival of cells in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 of about 50 microg/ml. Oral administration of 50 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg P. emblica in PBS, 5 days/week significantly suppressed the growth of Capan-2 pancreatic tumor-xenograft. [28]

Herbal combination that include P. emblica has significantly reduced the benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] induced forestomach papillomagenesis in mice. In the short term treatment groups, the tumour incidences were lowered to 77.77% by both doses of herbal mixed diet. In the case of long-term treatment the tumour incidences were reduced to 66.66% and 62.50% respectively by 2.5% and 5% herbal mixed containing diet. [29]

In other experiment, aqueous extract of herbal combination of P. emblica also reported to decrease the cytotoxicity activity in human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). An oral administration of herbal combination to mice (40 mg/kg body weight) transplanted with barcl-95 produced significant reduction in tumour growth as evaluated by tumour volume measurement. [30]

Antidiabetic activity

Methanolic extracts (75%) of the fruits of T. chebula, T. Belerica and P. emblica has been reported to inhibit lipid peroxide formation and to scavenge hydroxyl and superoxide radicals in vitro. The results of the study showed all herbal extracts were found to scavenge the superoxides generated by photoreduction of riboflavin. The concentration of extract needed for 50% scavenging of superoxides by P. emblica was 12.5 mg/ml indicating a strong anti-oxidant activity of P. emblica extract. The single dose oral administration of the P. emblica extract (100 mg/kg body wt) was found to reduce serum glucose level in normal rats by 29.52%. There was a significant fall in glucose level in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats 4 h after administration of P. emblica (13.5%). Continued, daily administration of the extracts produced a sustained effect. [31]

The leaves and fruits of P. emblica were found to have high total phenolic contents (72.0-167.2 mg/g) and high antioxidant activity (69.6-90.6%). [32] In other experiment, the antioxidant properties of P. emblica extract and their effects on the oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats were tested. P. emblica in the form of either the commercial enzymatic extract SunAmla (Taiyo Kagaku Co. Ltd., Yokkaichi, Japan) (20 or 40 mg/kg of body weight/day) or a polyphenol-rich fraction of ethyl acetate extract (10 or 20 mg/kg of body weight/day) was given orally for 20 days to the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, showed strong free radical scavenging activity and strong inhibition of the production of advanced glycosylated end products. [33]

Aqueous extract of P. emblica has been reported to exhibit a very good antioxidant properties and are rich in phytochemicals which ahve high antiradical activity properties. [34]

Antisnake venom activity

The methanolic root extracts of Vitex negundo and P. emblica has been reported to exhibit antisnake venom activity. The viper venom-induced haemorrhagic, coagulant, anticoagulant and inflammatory activity investigated in in vitro and in vivo studies were significantly neutralized by both V. negundo and P. emblica extracts. However, the degree of protection was always higher in in vitro studies indicating the possibilities of inactivation or precipitation of active venom components by the plant extracts. Identification of pure compounds and their mechanism of venom inhibition are being studied. [35]

Antitussive activity

The ethanolic extract of P. emblica fruit has been reported to exhibit antitussive activity of P. emblica in conscious cats by mechanical stimulation of the laryngopharyngeal (LP) and tracheobronchial (TB) mucous areas of airways. The ethanolic extract of P. emblica administered orally and dissolved in water for injection at two different doses (50 mg/kg body wt and 200 mg/kg body wt) showed a good ability to inhibit mechanically-provoked cough, but only at higher doses (200 mg/kg body wt). A comparison of cough parameters from TB and LP regions revealed different abilities to influence the mechanisms regulating the quality and quantity of cough. The study concluded by reporting the presence of antitussive activity of P. emblica in conscious cats, which is dose-dependent but higher than the antitussive activity of the commonly used non-narcotic antitussive dropropizine. [36]

Chondroproptective activity

A pilot study to identify and quantitative new chondroprotective activities of P. emblica fruit powders was investigated on human arthritic cartilage in vitro. Unprocessd dry fruit powder (powder A) and powder obtained after hot water extraction spray drying of powder A (powder B) and extract of glucosamine sulphate were used in the experiments involving (i) enzymes hyaluronidase and collagenase type 2, (ii) an in vitro model of cartilage degradation set-up with explant cultures of articular knee cartilage from osteoarthritis patients, and (iii) in the explant model of cartilage matrix damage.  The results demonstrate the long-term chondroprotective activity of P. emblica powder B is comparable to that of glucosamine sulphate in terms of magnitude and potency. On the other hand, P. emblica powder A is notable in inducing a strong short-term chondroprotective response in cartilage explants from all osteoarthritic patients in which it was tested.  The aqueous extracts of both fruit powders which significantly inhibited the activities of hyaluronidase and collagenase type 2 in vitro is valuable pre-clinical evidence for an antiarthritic role for P. emblica fruit. [37]

Antimicrobial activity

Aqueous, hexane and alcoholic extracts of 82 Indian medicinal plants that include P. emblica has been reported to exhibit antibacterial activity. Result obtained shows that alcoholic extract of P. emblica show potentially interesting activity against test bacteria. [38]

Methanol extract of a mixture of P. emblica, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia balerica showed a strong antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhi. [39]

Toxicity

No documentation.

Clinical Data

No documentation.

Dosage

No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing

No documentation.

References

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