Cinnamomum sintoc Blume

Last updated: 13 September 2016

Scientific Name

Cinnamomum sintoc Blume

Synonyms

Cinnamomum calophyllum Nees, Cinnamomum camphoratum Blume, Cinnamomum cinereum Gamble, Cinnamomum coriaceum Cammerl., Cinnamomum laxiflorum Meisn., Cinnamomum pseudosintok Miq., Laurus calophylla Reinw. ex Nees & T.Nees [Invalid]. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Medang teja lawang, sintok [2]
Indonesia Sintok, huru sintok (Java); Huru sitok, kiteja (Sundanese); Madang sangit, madang lawang (Sumatera) [3]
Thailand Lu Cha, Luk K [2]

Geographical Distributions

Cinnamomum sintoc is found in Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Java, the Lesser Sunda Islands and Borneo. [4]

Botanical Description

C. sintoc Blume belongs to the family Lauraceae. It is a medium-sized to fairly large tree that can grow up to 39 m tall with its bole up to 70 cm in diametre while the buttresses are up to 2 m high. Its bark surface is smooth to shallowly fissured, with lenticels and the inner bark is red with white striations. [4]

The leaves are arranged opposite or subopposite, measuring 7-22.5 cm x 2.5- 8.5 cm with narrowly to broadly wedge-shaped base. The apex is blunt to acuminate, hirsute below and 3-veined. The main veins are prominent while the tertiary venation is reticulate and very faint on both surfaces. The petiole is 0.8-1.8 cm long. [4]

The inflorescence is an axillary or pseudo-terminal panicle. It is 10-15 cm long. The flowers are grey and densely covered with short soft hairs. [4]

The fruit is oblong to ellipsoid, measuring about 1.8 cm x 0.8 cm and seated on a cup-shaped perianth with an entire margin. [4]

Cultivation

C. sintoc is common in hill forests, but does occur in lowlands and montane forests, up to 2400 m altitude. [4]

Chemical Constituent

C. sintoc has been reported to contain safrole, g-muurolene, eugenol, linalool,   terpinen-4-ol, a-cadinol, germacrene D, a-terpineol, d-cadinene, a -copaene, allo-aromadendrene, cubenol, tetradecanal , octadecanoic acid, pentadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid, methyl (Z)-cinnamate. [3][5]

Plant Part Used

No documentation

Traditional Use

It was reported that the roots of the tree was taken in a decoction during pregnancy and also during the confinement period to avoid post-partum depression. Amongst the Malays sintok form part of a paste applied to the head of women immediately after birth to prevent dizziness and flatulence associated with the process. The bark is used as a bath for women after menstruation as a cleanser and refresher. [6] It is included in the Indonesian jamu “sehat wanita” where it increase body strength and increase resistance to disease. [7]

The barks and leaves are used to treat chronic diarrhoea. It is said to possess antispasmodic properties and is used to treat lower abdominal colics. [8] It is a vermifuge and is used to treat intestinal parasitism. [4]

In Sumatra an infusion of the bark and leaves are made into mouthwash to treat inflamed gums while in Malaysia they are made into a poultice for ulcers. They are considered a tonic and is used to as a bath for people in convalescence. The bark is used to treat chronic diarrhoea and also acts as an antispasmodic. [8] The roots in the form of a decoction are a remedy for syphilis and have been used in the treatment of venomous bites of insects and serpents. [6] Wounds are treated using powdered form of the bark. [9] Burkill reported its used in the treatment of numbness of the feet. [10]

Preclinical Data

No documentation

Clinical Data

No documentation

Dosage

No documentation

Poisonous Management

No documentation

Line drawing

116

Figure 1: The line drawing of C. sintoc Blume [3]

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Cinnamomum sintoc Blume. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 23; cited 2016 Aug 4]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-2721620
  2. Mat-Salleh K, Latif A. Tumbuhan ubatan Malaysia. Bangi, Selangor: Pusat Pengurusan Penyelidikan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 2002. p. 83
  3. Hidayat RS, Rodame MN. Kitab tumbuhan obat. Indonesia: Agriflo, 2015; p. 362
  4. Lemmens RHMJ, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No.5(2): Timber trees: Minor Commercial Timbers. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers, 1995; p. 139
  5. Ibrahim BJ, Mira FY, Ayop N, Abu SA. Constituents of the essential oils of Cinnamomum sintoc Blume from a mountain forest of Peninsular Malaysia. Flavour and fragrance Journal. 2005; 20(6):601-604.
  6. Noraida Arifin. Penyembuhan semula jadi dengan herb. Malaysia: PTS Litera Utama, 2005; p. 221-222
  7. Harini MS, Inge L. Some ethnophytomedical aspects and conservation strategy of several medicinal plants in Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas.20023(2):231–235.
  8. Wiart C. Medicinal plants of Asia and the Pacific. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 2006; p. 16.
  9. Burkill IH. A dictionary of economic products of the Malay Peninsula. Volume 1. Kuala Lumpur: Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives of Malaysia; 1966. p. 562
  10. Gimlette JD, Burkill IH. The medical book of Malayan medicine. Singapore: Gardens’ Bulletin VI, 1930; p. 342.