Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.

Last updated: 6 April 2016

Scientific Name

Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.

Synonyms

Cynodon indicus, Cynosurus indicus, Eleusine gracilis, Eleusin marginata, Eragrostis indica, Juncus bulbosus, Juncus loureiroanus. [1][2][3][4].

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Rumput sambau [5][6], sambau [6]
English Goosegrass (USA)[5]; banyard grass, crab grass, crow’s-foot grass, goose grass, goosefoot gras, Indian goose grass, landgrass, mangrass, rapoko grass, wild finger millet, wire grass, yardgrass [6]
India Balraja, bilwagaja, chaodhara, chichora, gadha, charwa, gadha chicora, gadha mandwi, ganjalada hoo, ghada mandwi, ghod-chabba, gurchawa, gurra gadi, hakki kaalina hullu, hecchuli hullu, hechhuli hulu, jharnpriya kodu, jhingri, jinjhor, kaadu raagi, kaaruchodi, kakariya, karuchodi, kevuru, khurd, khurd mendi, kumtung, kuncappul, kuror, ijihar, madanya, madhulika, mal-ankuri, mandial jori, mahar nachani, makaraita, makraila, mandwa, medwari,   mirwari, nachon, nandia, nandimukhi, natno, phanghand, ran nachani, rannachani, tippa raagi, thippa ragi, thoseria pandhad [6]
Indonesia Godong ula, rumput welulang, suket, lulangan. Suket chelulang, suket welulang [5] tetegu [6]
Thailand Ya pak khok, ya pak khwai, ya tin ka, ya tin nok, yaa paak khok, yaa paak khwaai, ya pak khwai, yaa phaak khwaai, ya teenka. Yaa teennok, ya tinkaa, yoe khum [6]
Laos Nia pak kouay [6]
Philippines Apidan, bakis-bakisan, barangan, bikad-bikad, bila-bila, bugtusan, dinapaiuk, gagabutan, kabit-kabit, palagtiki, paragis, parangis, parangis-sabungan, sabung-sabungan, sambali [6]
Bangladesh Binna challa, chapra, gaicha, malangakuri [6]
Sri Lanka Belatana, walmal kurakkan [6]
Cambodia Choeung kras [6]
Vietnam Co bac, co chi tia, co dang, co man trau, co viron trau, tranh tam thao [6]
Japan o-hi-shiba,   ibafasu, shipu-kusa (Okinawa) [6]
Africa Gamatori, gomateri, tchouan, torohundo (Benin); targanga (Burkina); umureza, urfanfu (Burundi); gbahele, ndili (Central Africa); imbanziala, kalungulungu ka montage, kimbandza, kimbandzia, kimboundia, ludiuy, tolungulungu ta motanga (Congo); bek, ekitu, enguruma, kasibauti, malulu, orutaratari, ribanchore (East); akpente, nsensan, tangana, tanganga (Ghana); albali, blikatchor, butchuque (Guinea-Bissau); binbirima, bintirima, diandiale, diandali, gbenewanlou, gbenewoulou,gbintima, sekedi, siguiri, siguirigni, tarassa, tayondo, tiembi, tigulini, trassa (Guinea); assumuamata, dididire, essouema, essuema, kama,kpede, kwede, n tema, n’tena, siganzi (Ivory coast); Tsiavotraombilyity, tsimpingnpigny, tsimpipiny, tsipihipihina, gondema, guenteman, nassi gargague, so pegou, aghaeji, aghaji, bari kengey, diliare, hak orin kare, najim,tababe, tuji, tujy (Niger); angolo, berison lei, berisonlei, berisson lei, ciiyaawar tuujii, elade, ele, ese kannakanna, ese kannkanna, gabji,gbeji, gbegidina, gebegin, ichite, ile, jighir, sargande, seragade, seragalde, syesye, tnatna, tuji, tuuji (Nigeria); budi darate, budi dukhot, gondirima, gondnema, guentneman, mondon darate, nassi gargague, ratam fambe, vodvod (Senegal); dutasa, gbantama, lutasa, ngetea wuli, ngetaewuli, ngetewu, ngete wulo ha, ngetewi, ngetewuli, ngitwa, sigri, taiyondo, tese, tgibiri na, tigirinyi, tunkun de (Sierra leone); Indiese osgras, jongosgras, jongospol, osgras, ospol, sterkpol, lia-ngoetsi, umnyalakhobe, unyankomo (Southern); kifungambusi, malulu, ndule (Tanzania); adon’doule, tchama (Togo); garga,gatan, tar ganga, targanga (upper volta); [6]
Bhutan Cholop, shade, jhar, kongpu, ngoon, daday, kodho jhar [6]
Papua New Guinea Hiroi, iquazoi, kiroi [6]
Hawaii Manienie ali’I [6]
Malawi Chinsangwi, chigombe, kanggodza, chipikamongu. [2][7][8]

Geographical Distributions

No documentation

Botanical Description

Eleusine indica is a member of the Poaceae family. It is a smooth or slightly hairy, tufted, prostrate to ascending grass reaching up to 90 cm tall. [9][10]

The stem is white or pale green, is laterally flattened, smooth or with a few long hairs along the edges. The leaf sheath measures 6-9 cm long, flattened laterally with a few long hairs at the collar. [9][10]

The leaf blade is either flat or fold, linear-lanceolate measuring 10-30 cm long and 3-6 mm wide with almost parallel margins and a rather blunt tip. It has a few scattered hairs on the upper surface. The ligule is membranous with a jagged edge. The long hairs occur on the margins at the junction of the blade and sheath. The inflorescence is digitate, profusely branching at the base. The terminal whorl of 3-6 spikes measures 4-8 cm long and 3-6 mm wide. It often has 1 to 2 additional spikes slightly below the others. The numerous spikelets are sessile, awnless measure 4-5 mm long, laterally compressed, and crowded into 2 rows along the underside of the flattened rachis.

The fruit is a red-brown caryopsis measuring about 1.5 mm long, oblong-ovate with conspicuous ridges. [10]

Cultivation

No documentation

Chemical Constituent

E. indica has been reported to contain 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-sitosterol, schaftoside and vitexin. [7]

Plant Part Used

Whole plants including the seeds [2][7]

Traditional Use

In Central Sumatra E. indica is used to treat worms while in Indo-china, it is being used to treat liver complains and also serve as a stomachic. The Colombian takes a decoction of the whole plant to relieve diarrhea and dysentery. The plant is also used to treat liver complaints like jaundice in children where the decoction of the seeds is used by the Venezuelans. [2][7] The African nations used this plant to treat respiratory symptoms like cough and hemoptysis. In Trinidad, it is even used to treat pneumonia. [8]] Juice extracted from the leaves is given to women to ease the delivery of the placenta as prescribed in Peninsular Malaysia. It is considered a sudorific and is used to treat fever. Decoction of the whole plant is also a diuretic and is used to treat urinary infection. [2][7][8][9]

Preclinical Data

Pharmacology

No documentation

Clinical Data

Clinical findings

No documentation

Interaction & Depletion

No documentation

Dosage

No documentation

Poisonous Management

No documentation

Line drawing

No documentation

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 23; cited 2015 May 29]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-410636
  2. Marita IG, Keith M, Colin M. Piggin upland rice weeds of South and Southeast Asia. Manila: International Rice Research Institute, 1999; p. 82.
  3. Mallett K. Flora of Australia. Volume 44B. Poaceae 3. Melbourne, Australia: Australian Biological Resources Study/ CSIRO Publishing, 2005; p. 417.
  4. Merril ED. A commentary on Loureiro's "Flora Cochinchinensis": Tansactions of the American Philosophical Soceity. Volume 24, Part 2. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society Philadelphia, 1935; p. 78.
  5. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research. Compendium of medicinal plants used in Malaysia. Volume 1. Kuala Lumpur: HMRC IMR, 2002; p. 314.
  6. Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Volume IV E-L. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 2012; p. 36-37.
  7. Khare CP. Indian medicinal plants: An illustrated dictionary. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2007; p. 236
  8. Morris B. Chewa medical botany: A study of herbalism in Southern Malawi. Hamburg: LIT Verlag, 1996; p. 315-316.
  9. Burkill IH. A dictionary of economic products of the Malay Peninsula. Volume 1. Kuala Lumpur: Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives of Malaysia, 1966; p. 378.
  10. Mueller KE. Field problems of tropical rice. Manila: International Rice Research Institute, 1989; p. 134.