Symplocarpus foetidus (L.) Salisb. ex W.P.C.Barton

Last updated: 7 June 2016

Scientific Name

Symplocarpus foetidus (L.) Salisb. ex W.P.C.Barton  

Synonyms

Dracontium foetidum L., Ictodes foetidus (L.) Bigelow, Pothos foetidus (L.) Aiton, Pothos putorii Barton, Spathyema angusta Raf., Spathyema foetida (L.) Raf., Spathyema lanceolata Raf., Spathyema latifolia Raf., Symplocarpus foetidus (L.) W. Salisb. [1]

Vernacular Name

English Purple skunk cabage,skunk cabbage, eastern skunk cabbage,skunk weed, meadow cabbage, polecat weed, collard, stinking poke, fetid hellebore, tabac-dudiable, chou puant [2], collard, meadow cabbage, swamp cabbage [3]
China Chou song [2]

Geographical Distributions

Most easily identified by its miasmal odor, S. foetidus is a large flowering plant found native to Eastern North America wetlands ranging from Canada to Florida. [4]

Botanical Description

S. foetidus belongs in the arum family Araceae. The flower of S. foetidus which commonly appears before the leaves, includes a bulbous or hood-shaped spathe, roughly 10-15 cm in length and ranges from deep purple to red in color. [4]

Inside the spathe is a smaller, white spadix, roughly 5-10 cm in length. The broad leaves, which flourish in summer, can grow up to 55 cm long and 40 cm wide. The tuberous rhizome can be 30 cm in diameter and the roots grow 8 cm deep. [4]

Cultivation

No documentation

Chemical Constituent

Calcium-oxalate, N-hydroxytryptamine, resin, tannin. [5]

Plant Part Used

Seeds, rhizomes, roots, leaves. [5][6]

Traditional Use

S. foetidus has been used for numerous applications by many Native American tribes on the eastern half of the continent. Many of its uses are common themes spreading through tribes, while some of its uses are isolated to a single tribe. Most widely spreads are the uses of S. foetidus as either an anticonvulsive or a treatment for general respiratory disorders. S. foetidus is generally considered to have a stimulating, expectorant, antispasmodic, diuretic and narcotic effect on the body. [7]

S. foetidus has been used as an analgesic by people of the Delaware, Menominee, and Micmac tribes. In the Delaware tribe, a poultice made of leaves is used topically to relieve pain and swelling. The people of the Menominee tribe used the root to treat cramps. S. foetidus is also used by the people of the Micmac tribe to treat headache. [8]

S. foetidus has been traditionally used as a treatment for rheumatism by two Native American tribes; the Abenaki and the Iroquois. While the Abenaki use the plant externally to treat symptoms of rheumatism, such as swelling, the Iroquois steamed the plant, believing the steam to relieve rheumatism. [9]

Numerous Native American tribes have used S. foetidus as an anticonvulsive. Epileptics in both the Delaware the Mohegan tribes chewed the leaves during epileptic episodes. In the Menominee tribe, the powdered root was used to a similar effect. [8]

The use of S. foetidus as a treatment for cough or respiratory disorders ranges as far as its native habitat. The Chippewa people used a root infusion as a cough medicine, while the Delaware tribe used the same infusion more specifically in whooping cough. The infusion of the root has also been used by the Iroquois as a treatment for tuberculosis. The Nanticoke, however, used an infusion of the leaves to treat respiratory infections such as the cold. [8]

S. foetidus has been used externally to treat wounds and swelling. The Iroquois believed that if the plant was applied to a bite wound, the teeth of the person or animal would fall out. A more practical usage, involving a poultice of dried root applied to a lesion or cut, was used by the Menominee tribe. The Meskwaki people used a poultice of the leaves to treat swelling. [10]

The Iroquois believed that a decoction of the seeds and aerial parts of S. foetidus was useful in treating “falling of the womb” or a prolapsed uterus. They also used a decoction of fresh stalks to treat womb displacement. [11]

The Menominee used a decoction of the roots from S. foetidus as a cardiotonic. They also used the root hairs as for its alleged haemostatic properties. The root hairs were also used by the Menominee tribe as a remedy for toothache. [12]

The Iroquois believed that the powdered root of this fetid plant could be used as an underarm wash to cure general body odor. The Iroquois also believed that S. foetidus to be useful in treatment of worms in their young. [11]

Preclinical Data

Pharmacology

Note: There are no clinical or pre-clinical studies on this plant in regard to how it may have been used as a medicinal treatment. Most of the studies on this plant are designed to further examine its unique ability to regulate its temperature thereby emerging even through the snow in early spring.[13][14]

Toxicity

No documentation

Clinical Data

Clinical findings

No documentation

Precautions

Due to the calcium oxalate content, this herb should not be used by those with kidney stones or kidney disease. [15]

Side effects

No documentation

Pregnancy/Breast Feeding

Not to be used with children, pregnant or nursing women or those who plant on becoming pregnant. [15]

Interaction & Depletion

No documentation

Dosage

Dosage Range

Crude Herb : 1-3 g [16]

Extracts :1-5 drops (1-2 times per day) [16]

Infusion : ½ - 1 cup per day [16]

Most Common Dosage

No documentation

Poisonous Management

No documentation

Line drawing

No documentation

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Symplocarpus foetidus (L) Salisb ex W.P.C Barton. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 23; cited 2016 June 8]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-198911
  2. Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Volume III R-Z. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 2012; p. 461.
  3. Runkel ST, Roosa DM. Wildflowers and other plants of Iowa Wetlands. Ames, Iowa: University of Iowa Press, 1999; p. 48.
  4. Everett TH. The New York botanical garden illustrated. Encyclopaedia of horticulture. Volume 10. New York: New York Botanical Garden, 1982; p. 3274
  5. Moerman DE. Native American ethnobotany. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press; 2009.
  6. Thomson healthcare. PDR for herbal medicines. Montvale, New Jersey: Thomson Healthcare Inc; 2007.
  7. Hutchens, A. Indian herbalogy of North America. Boston, Massachusetts: Shambala; 1991.
  8. Jack S. Secrets of Wildflowers: A delightful feast of little-known facts, folklore, and history. Guilford, Connecticut: Lyons press, 2014; p. 3-6.
  9. Ito K, Ito T, Onda Y, Uemura M. Temperature-triggered periodical thermogenic oscillations in skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus). Plant Cell Physiol. 2004;45(3):257-264.
  10. Tantaquidgeon G. Folk medicine of the Delaware and Algonkian Indians. Anthropological series 3. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania Historical Society; 2001.
  11. Seivers AF. The herb hunter’s guide: American medicinal plants of commercial importance. Miscellaneous Publication No. 77. Washington, D.C.: US Department of Agriculture; 1930.
  12. Moerman D. Medicinal plants of Native America.Ann Arbor: Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan; 1986.
  13. Ito K, Ito T, Onda Y, Uemura M. Temperature-triggered periodical thermogenic oscillations in skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus). Plant Cell Physiol. 2004;45(3):257-264.
  14. Takahashi K, Ito T, Onda Y, et al. Modeling of the thermoregulation system in the skunk cabbage: Symplocarpus foetidus. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2007;76(1):1-5.
  15. McGuffin M, Hobbs C, Upton R, Goldberg A. American herbal products association's botanical safety handbook.Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 1997.
  16. Debra R. Let's get natural with herbs. Huntsville, Arkansas: Ozark Mountain Publishing, 2007; p.101