Senna alata (L.) Roxb.

Last updated: 08 Nov 2016

Scientific Name

Senna alata (L.) Roxb.

Synonyms

Cassia alata L., Cassia alata var. perennis Pamp., Cassia alata var. rumphiana DC., Cassia bracteata L.f., Cassia herpetica Jacq., Cassia rumphiana (DC.) Bojer, Herpetica alata (L.) Raf., Herpetica alata O.F. Cook & G.N. Collins. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Daun kurap, daun gelenggang, daun kurap, geleng-gang, gelenggang besar, ludanggan, solok [2]
English Candelabra bush, candle bush, candlestick plant, candlesticks, carrion crow bush, Christmas candle, craw-craw, craw-craw plant, golden candelabra tree, king of the forest, piss a bed, ringworm bush, ringworm cassia, ring-worm herb, ringworm plant, ringworm senna, ringworm shrub, roman candle tree, seven golden candlesticks, shrimp flower, wild senna, winged senna [2]
China Chi jia jue ming, dui ye dou [2]
India Agase gida, alata, anjali, attora, calavakatti, cala-vakatticetti, cimaiakatti, cimaiyakatti, cimaiyavutti, cin-tuki, cintukiyakatti, cirikai, dad-ka-patta, dadamardana, daddumardu, daddupana, dadmardan, dadmardoma, dad-mari, dadmurdan, dadrughna, dahvala, daopata, dat-ka-pat, datkapat, deo-mardon, dhavala gida, dhawala gida, dodda chagache, dodda thagache, dodda thangadi, dod-dacagate, doddachagate, doddasagate, dvipagasti, elaka-jam, jadumari, kacampakatti, karccakkinam, kharpat, lutodabai, maizali-gi, malai tagarai, mati-khau-kan, met-tataamara, mettatamara, mitta Tamara, mongrangjang-tong, pairavam, pairavamaram, palal, pei agathi, peyakatti, ponnakatti, puliyacikacceti, puliyacikam, pulukkolli, puri-tappu, saquaklei, seema avise, seemaavasie, seemaavise, seemagati, seemai agathi, seemai, agathy, seemaiagatti, seemayavisa, seema agase, seeme thangadi, seemie agha-tee, semmai agatti, senamukhi, sensing, sheemaavisi, shee-mai-agatti, shimayakatti, shime-agase, sima avisl, simaagati, simaavishi, simaavisi, simaiyagatti, simayakatti, simayavisa, simayavise, simeagase, simeyagase, simyagase, tatturukkinam, thakara, thin baw, tiruttakattimaram, tirut-tavutti, tui-hlo, tuihlo, vandu kolli, vandu kollu, vandu-rolli, vandugolli, vandukolli, vantukatiyalai, vantukkolli, van-tunelli, vendu-kolli, vendukolli, vilayati-aghatea, vilayati-agati, vilyati-aghatea [2]
Borneo Serugam [2]
Brunei Paa-ul, raun suluk, tarump [2]
Indonesia Daun kupang, gelinggam, ketepeng, ketepeng kebo, ketepeng tjina, udu kep [2]
Thailand Chumhet thet, chumhet yai, kheekhaak, lapm-uen luang, maak kaling thet, ta-see pho [2]
Laos Khi let ban [2]
Philippines Acapulco, adadisi, akapulko, ancharasi, anda-dasi, andadasi-a-dadakkél, andalan, bayabasin, bikas-bikas, buni-buni, gamut-sa-buni, kapis, kapurko, kasitas, katanda, pakagonkon, palochina, sonting, yomkom-kastila [2]
Cambodia Dang het, dang het khmoch [2]
Vietnam Cay lac, mu[oof]ng l[as]c, mu[oof]ng tr[aa]u, muong trau [2]
Japan Hana-senna [2]
Central African Republic Dotarate, gbado, ihina gbwe zolo, ngalafo, odo [2]
West Africa Yamnua [2]
Pacific Acapulco, andadoce, take biha [2]
Papua New Guinea Aaku pero, agla, gala, kabaiura, levoauna, orere, tilivur, unahi maluana, usese, wasemu [2]
Bolivia Kota-kota, yunka mutuillu, cara de caballo [2]
Colombia Galve [2]
Benin Amassou yovoto, amassoum yovoton, assouwan, éwé, ewèasson, fakantibou, fakatibou, hontomadassè, kan-gagni, madonsohomé, madossohomê, mandonsohomé, man-dosophoné, moumonta kpétimou, partibou, pertibou, zokou [2]
Burkina Faso Basa, bendassidio, douflabo, gobléï, kaaba, kogoué, kraba, monmonbougro, n’kombo, nia adro, saïkloho, yamadro, zadiago [2]
Cameroon Ngom-ntangan [2]
Comoros Moegné [2]
Congo Baanga ndzazi, balii, bensi-kia, bombwase, busila, bwalu mbala, diwuha, folele, kibama, lifuku, makuwa, mbata, mokoko, mokolo, mooti, mundzaa ndzazi, muyiebuissi, muy-ili, nbusi, ndungu, ngali, nzama, nzazi, oha, ondzendzeke, tsinga, tunda, washa wa singa [2]
Gabon Antsovino, avarama, avon-owanga, dadgwè, difuga-di-wissiguenda, difuka-di-wisi-gwènda, ekayi-akira, eveghe-ngoghe, évèghengoghe, gitsamuna, guitsamuna, igondjny’ akira, kinkeliba, lifuluku-li-bwisi-lutsu, magwèra-ma-wisi, mavono-banga, mavono-owanga, mov-ino-vino, moviyo-viyo, mutotolo, ndawule-ntangha, ndèm-ngoghe, ndem-ngoghe, vido, vurubanga [2]
Guinea Kötambalen, kèman, kotambatye, kötanbalen tyèman, sinya görkö, sinyagorko, wongele khèmè, wongele khene [2]
Ivory Coast Akiaki, akiagon, bien dza, djorouba-brou, glagula, kiéhou kiégba, ko n’taba, kontaba, kotaba, nialouba, sorogbaguio [2]
Madagascar Andrabay, anjananjana, dartrier, katirepengla, katrepengla, quatre-épingles [2]
Mali Jaramaa, kontaba, kotaba [2]
Nigeria Asunron, asunwon, asuwon, ewèasson, gungoroko, ndaya okon, okpo, okpo ndichi, ufu uguma, ulono-bikan [2]
Senegal Mbata, mbâta [2]
Sierra Leone Aiyani, nje pai, njepa, njepaa [2]
Tanzania Mchingu, upupu wa mwitu [2]
Togo Kakoka, kitchingtchig’a, madonsohomé [2]
Uganda Mpologoma tekiika. [2]

Geographical Distributions

Senna alata is a large, spreading shrub that originated from Argentina. [3]

Botanical Description

S. alata is a member of Fabaceae family. [4] It is a shrub reaching 1-2(-5) m high, branches greenish, thick and pubescent. [4][5]

Leaves pinnate with a long rachis about 30-60 cm long; each pinna has about 8-20 pairs of leaflets; petiole 2-3 cm long; leaflets 5-15 cm x 3-7 cm, oblong-elliptical with rounded corners or obtuse at the ends and glabrous. [4][5]

Inflorescence is an axillary raceme, robust, dense, 20-50 cm long, large, very erect and very easily seen even from a distance. [4][5]

Flowers with oblong sepals, 10-20 mm x 6-7 mm, orange-yellow; petals ovate-orbicular, 16-24 mm x 10-15 mm, bright yellow; 2 large stamens with stout filaments of 4 mm long and anthers about 12-13 mm long; 4 small stamens with filaments of 2 mm long and anthers about 4-5 mm long; 3-4 staminodes; ovary puberulous, sessile, with many (up to 58) ovules; style filiform; stigma small. [4][5]

Fruit tetragonal, 10-15 cm x 1.5-8 cm, winged 4-8 mm, black, glabrous, up to 50-seeded. [4][5]

Seeds quadrangular, flattened, 7-8 mm x 5-8 mm, shiny. [4][5]

 

243figa

(a)

243figb

(b)

243figc

(c)

243figd

 

(d)

Figure 1: S. alata (a) whole plant; (b) leaves; (c) flowers; (d) seeds. (Photos courtesy of FRIM, 2012)

Cultivation

No documentation.

Chemical Constituent

Methanolic extract of the leaves of S. alata has been found to contain flavonoids (e.g. kaempferol, kaempferol-3-O-gentiobioside and kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside), [6] anthraquinones (e.g. aloe-emodin, rhein methyl ester and danthron), diterpene (e.g. phytol) and minor compound (e.g. 4-hydroxybenzoic acid) [7].

Ethanolic extract of the leaves of S. alata contains several minor compounds such as p-hydroxybenzoic acid and adenine. [8][9]

Butanol extract of the leaves of S. alata also contains flavonoids (e.g. kaempferol, kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-gentiobioside) and anthraquinones (e.g. rhein and aloe-emodin). [10]

Chloroform extract of the leaves contain santhraquinones (e.g. aloe-emodin and rhein) and steroidal compounds (e.g. stigmasterol and sitosterol). [11]

Hexane extract of leaves has been found to contain cassiaindoline. [12]

Essential oils of the leaves contain mainly monoterpenes (e.g. linalool, borneol, α-terpineol, 1,8-cineole and limonene), [13] sesquiterpenes (e.g. β-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, germacrene and α-selinene) and lipid (e.g. pentadecanal) [14].

 

S. alata leaf has been reported to contain kaempferol-3-gentiobioside. [15][16]

Plant Part Used

Leaves [17]

Traditional Use

Traditionally, the Malays and the Chinese rubbed the pounded leaves of S. alata mix with lime on the skin as a remedy for ringworm and other cutaneous diseases. A decoction of the leaves also may be taken as a purgative. [17]

However, it also was claimed that the active substance of chrysophanic acid was poisonous to cattle. [17]

Preclinical Data

Pharmacology

Antimicrobial activity

Methanol extract of S. alata leaves (7.8-500 µg/mL) inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC = 7.8 µg/mL), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC = 125 µg/mL), Escherichia coli (MIC = 125 µg/mL), Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 125 µg/mL) and Proteus vulgaris (MIC = 125 µg/mL) with inhibition zone ranging from 5 to 11 mm compared to gentamicin (5 mm) using agar diffusion assay. [18]

Methanol extract of S. alata leaves (3-100 µg/mL) inhibited the growth of E. coli (MIC = 15 µg/mL), Proteus mirabilis (MIC = 20 µg/mL), P. aeruginosa (MIC = 20 µg/mL), Salmonella typhi (MIC = 15 µg/mL), Shigella flexnerri (MIC = 15 µg/mL), S. aureus (MIC = 12 µg/mL) and Streptococcus pyogenes (MIC = 12 µg/mL) with inhibition zones ranging from 6 to 12 mm compared to ciprofloxacin (inhibition zones = 12-28 mm) and streptomycin (inhibition zones = 6-22 mm) using agar diffusion assay. [18][19]

Chloroform extract of S. alata leaves (7.8-500 µg/mL) inhibited the growth of B. subtilis (MIC = 62.5 µg/mL), P. aeruginosa (MIC = 250 µg/mL), E. coli (MIC = 250 µg/mL) and S. aureus (MIC = 62.5 µg/mL) with inhibition zone ranging from 4 to 8 mm compared to gentamicin (5 mm) using agar diffusion assay. [18]

Aqueous extract of S. alata leaves (40-160 mg/mL) inhibited the growth of S. aureus (MIC = 25.12 mg/mL), E. coli (MIC = 3.55 mg/mL) and S. typhi (MIC = 22.39 mg/mL) with inhibition zones ranging from 11.60 to 37.00 mm compared to rifampicin (23-27 mm) using agar diffusion assay. [20]

Ethanol (95%) extract of S. alata leaves (20-160 mg/mL) inhibited the growth of S. aureus (MIC = 0.00 mg/mL), E. coli (MIC = 3.55 mg/mL) and S. typhi (MIC = 1.41 mg/mL) with inhibition zones ranging from 15.80 to 29.40 mm compared to rifampicin (23–27 mm) using agar diffusion assay. [20]

Methanol extract of S. alata leaves (3-100 µg/mL) inhibited the growth of Aspergillus flavus (MIC = 100 µg/mL), A. niger (MIC = 100 µg/mL), Candida albicans (MIC = 50 µg/mL) and Cryptococcus neoformans (MIC = 25 µg/mL) with inhibition zones ranging from 6 to 8 mm compared to amphotericin B (inhibition zones = 8–12 mm) and nystatin (inhibition zones = 10–14 mm) using agar diffusion assay. [19]

Ethanol extract of S. alata leaves (5-10 mg/mL) inhibited the growth of Microsporum canisTrichophyton verrucosum and Epidermophyton floccosum with inhibition zones ranging from 12.05 to 20.50 mm compared to clotrimazole (inhibition zones = 21.0-25.5 mm) using screwed diffusion assay. The extract (1.25-10.00 mg/mL) inhibited the growth of Trichophyton mentagrophytes with inhibition zone ranging from 11.0-19.5 mm. [21]

Crude ethanol and water extract of leaves and barks from S. alata has been reported to exhibit antimicrobial activity against fungi, (Aspergillus fumigatus and Microsporum canis), yeast (Candida albicans) and bacteria (Staphylococcus aereus and Escherichia coli). C. albicans showed concentration-dependent susceptibility towards both the ethanol and water extracts from the barks, but resistant towards the extracts of leaves. The degree of susceptibility varied, the water extract from barks showed bigger inhibition zone than the ethanol extracts (12-16 and 10-14 mm, diameter respectively). The growth of A. fumigatus and M. canis were not affected by all types of the plant extracts. Results were comparable to standard antifungal drug Tioconazole (18 mm diameter) at equivalent concentration. The anti-bacterial activity of S. alata extracts on S. aureus was detected with only the leaves extracts using water and ethanol. The water extract exhibited higher antibacterial activity than the ethanol extract from leaves (inhibition zones of 11-14 and 9-11 mm, respectively). E. coli showed resistance to all types of extracts. [22]

The methanol extracts of the leaves, flowers, stem and root barks of S. alata showed a range of antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacteria (Bacillus cereus, B. coagulans, B. megaterium, B. subtulis, Lactobacillus casei, Micrococcus luteus, M. roseus, Staphylococcus albus, S. aureus, S. epidermis, S. mutans, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Proteus mirabilis, P. vulgaris, Psedomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, S. typhimurium and Serratia marcescens) and protozoan (Trichomonas vaginalis) in this study. The activity was increased on fractionation petrol, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate. The dichloromethane fraction of the flower extracts being the most effective. However, no extract and fraction showed any activity against fungi. [23]

The ethanolic extracts of S. alata leaves showed high activity against 5 species of dermatophytic fungi but low activity against 4 other non-dermatophytic fungi. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the extract against T. mentagorphytes var. interdigitaleT. mentagrophytes var. mentagorophytesT. rubrum and Microsporum gypseum were 125 mg/mL, which Microsporum canis was 62.5 mg/mL. The inhibition was observed by means of light and scanning electron microscopy. The most prominent change seen was the morphology of the macroconidia which underwent structural degeneration beyond repair. [24]

Andrographis paniculataSenna alataCamellia sinensisPsidium guajavaHarrisonia perforata and Streblus asper, were extracted with 50 or 95 % ethanol and dried. All extracts, but Streblus asper, showed significant inhibitory effect on bacterial adherence to glass surface by the use of radiolabelled bacteria. A. paniculata, S. alata, C. sinensis and H. perforata inhibited the adherence of S. mutans ATCC 25175 for the saliva-coated hydroxyapatite adherence assay. C. sinensis was the strongest inhibitor followed by Andrographis paniculataCassia alata and Harrisonia perforata, respectively. For S. mutans TPF-1, similar levels of adherence inhibition was observed with A. paniculata and S. alata. These findings suggested that A. paniculata, S. alata, C. sinensis and H. perforata could inhibit adherence of S. mutans ATCC 25175, while A. paniculata and S. alata had an effect on S. mutans TPF-1 in vitro at the concentrations employed in this study. [25]


Aqueous extract of S. alata has been demonstrated to exhibit antibacterial and antifungal activities. The effectiveness of the extracts was evaluated relative to those of a standard antibacterial agent chloramphenicol and an antifungal agent amphotericin B. The MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) for the aqueous extract of S. alata against E. coli were 1.6 mg/mL and 60 mg/mL, respectively whereas, for chloramphenicol were 2 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL. The MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) for the extract against C. albicans were 0.39 mg/mL and 60 mg/mL, respectively. The MIC and MFC for amphotericin B were 0.58 mg/mL and 0.98 mg/mL, respectively. From the dose-response curve plots, the extract had an IC50 of 31 mg/mL for E. coli and 28 mg/mL for C. albicans. The data suggest that although S. alata extracts have much higher MIC and MFC compared to the standard antibacterial agent chloramphenicol and antifungal agent amphotericin B, the extract may contain agent(s), which have therapeutic potential and might be useful if isolated and developed for the treatment of opportunistic infections of AIDS patients. [26]

A combination of the ethanolic extract of S. alata leaf and Ocimum sanctum has shown anti-cryptococcus activity. [27] The combination of ethanolic extract with salicyclic acid was also reported to have an anti-dandruff effect against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. [28]

Antidiabetic activity

Ethanol and methanol extract of S. alata leaves (100 mg/kg) respectively administered orally to streptozotocin-induced diabetic Swiss albino mice (ten weeks) reduced the glucose levels as much as 18.74% and 8.35% respectively, compared to initial glucose levels, after 180 min of glucose load compared to glibenclamide control group (reduced by 132.94 %). [29]

The methanolic extract of S. alata leaves had no effect on glucose levels in normoglycemic rats, but it reduced the blood sugar levels in streptozotocin-induced hyperglycaemic rats. [30]

The hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of C. alata were tested for their hypoglycaemic activity on male mice induced intraperitoneally with alloxan (150 mg/kg). The ethyl acetate extract proved to be more effective antidiabetic than the known and commercially available glipizide. At a dosage of 5 mg/20g mouse, it decreased the blood sugar level of mice by 58.3%. [31]

Anti-inflammatory activity

Hot aqueous extract of both heat-treated and sun-dried S. alata leaves (0.01–1.00 mg/mL) showed inhibitory effect (0.05–98.4% inhibition) on the histamine release from concanavalin A-induced rat peritoneal mast cells. [16]

Hot aqueous extract of heat-treated S. alata leaves (0.3–1.00 mg/mL) showed significant (p < 0.05) anti-inflammatory activity on cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) with with inhibition rate of 92.5–96.6% compared to sun-dried S. alata leaves (86.6–100.5% inhibition rate). The extract (0.03–1.00 mg/mL) significantly (p < 0.05) showed anti-inflammatory activity on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) with inhibition rate of 15.5–84.6% compared to sun-dried S. alata leaves (6.10–72.9% inhibition rate). [16]

Hot aqueous extract of heat-treated S. alata leaves (0.01–0.1 mg/mL) showed significant (p < 0.05) inhibition on 5-lipoxygenase with inhibition rate of 26.9–84.1% compared to sun-dried S. alata leaves (3.2–64.9% inhibition rate). [16]

Antioxidant activity

Aqueous extract of S. alata leaves (2.66–7.09 μg/mL) showed anti-oxidant activity with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity inhibition concentration at 50% of growth (IC50) of 2.25 ±0.28 μg/mL compared to ascorbic acid (IC50 = 3.99 ±0.09 μg/mL) and Trolox (IC50 = 4.50 ±0.08 μg/mL). [32]

Weight reduction activity

Methanol extract of S. alata (3.0%) with high fat diet feed was administered orally to female ICR mice (three weeks old) for seven weeks. The extract significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the body weight gain (≈ 8.0 g) and parametrial fat weight (≈ 0.7088 g) compared to high fat diet control group (body weight gain ≈ 18.0 g, parametrial fat weight ≈ 1.3187 g). [33]

Analgesic activity

The hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of S. alata were tested for their analgesic activity using the acetic acid-induced writhing test. At a dosage of 5 mg/20 g mouse, the hexane extract was analgesic as it reduced the number of squirms induced by acetic acid by 59.5%. [30]

Hepatoprotective activity

A study was done on the petals of S. alata extracted using a mixture of formic acid, ethanol and water (1:10:9 v/v/v) (18). Effects of treatment with various concentrations of the extracts prior to treatment of rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) were assessed. Crude extracts of petals in 0.5% ethanol were administered by gavage for 14 days prior to injection of 0.5mL/kg CCl4 into the rats. Serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels decreased significantly in rats treated with the extracts compared to the rats treated with CCl4 only, 18 hours after CCl4 administration. These findings suggest that pretreatment of rats for 14 days with S. alata may reverse the changes against hepatotoxin-induced liver damage in rats. [34]

Choleretic activity

The choleretic activity of S. alata extract proved to be better than that of hydroxycyclohexenyl-butyrate (Hebucol), a synthetic choleretic, in rats. This suggests that the extract at 15 mg/kg may have the ability to control liver disease. However, at high doses, the plant tends to inhibit bile secretion. [35]

Sexual activity

A preliminary finding in animal studies suggested that S. alata had a positive fertility effect on the reproductive functions of female mice. [36][37]

Toxicity

Acute toxicity activity

Ethanol extract of S. alata leaves (1000, 2000 and 3000 mg/kg) was administered orally as single dose to female Swiss albino mice (22–30 g). After 14 days, no toxicity effect was observed (LD 50 > 3000 mg/kg). [29]

Methanol extract of S. alata leaves (1000, 2000 and 3000 mg/kg) was administered orally as single dose to female Swiss albino mice (22–30 g). After 14 days, there was no toxicity effect was observed (LD50> 3000 mg/kg). [29]

The acute and subacute toxicities of the hydro-ethanolic extract of the leaves of S. alata were determined in Swiss mice and Wistar albino rats. In the acute toxicity study, the mice showed some behavioral changes at 120 min after oral administration at 20 g/kg of the extract but the signs disappeared after 24 h. No adverse changes were seen in mice treated with less than 12 g/kg. The medium lethal dose (LD50) obtained was about 18.5 g/kg of body weight. Thus, the aqueous ethanol extract of S. alata was considered to be of low toxicity. For the subacute toxicity study, the rats were treated per os with distilled water (control), 500 or 1000 mg/kg of extract every 48 h for 26 days. An increase in body weight was observed after 26 days of treatment. There are some variations in the biochemical indices of the serum and liver homogenates (glutathione, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST)), haematological parameters (platelet) and in the relative weight of heart of the female rats. The liver was of normal architecture histopathologically after treatment with the extract appearing to improve the liver architecture of the rats treated with S. alata extract. [38]

The leaf and seed extracts of C. alata showed LC50 value of 5.29 ppm and 4.31 ppm, respectively when tested in the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. These findings suggested that the seed extract was more toxic to brine shrimp than the leaf extract but was comparable to the standard gallic acid (LC50 = 4.53 ppm). [39]

Hepatorenal toxicity activity

The ethanolic extract of S. alata leaves and the pure compounds emodin, kaempferol, aloe-emodin and rhein were tested for toxic effects on rats. The ethanol extract and the pure compounds isolated from S. alata elicited slight hepatorenal toxicity due to the presence of the anthraquinones in the leaves. [40]

Mutagenicity activity

The hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of C. alata were tested for their antimutagenic effects. The chloroform extract showed antimutagenic activity, at a dose of 2 mg/20g mouse, with a 65.8% inhibition in the mutagenicity of tetracycline. [31]

Haematotoxicity activity

The saponin content of leaf extract of S. alata was also reported to be toxic in rat models. Results indicated significant dose-dependent decreases in the levels of haemoglobin (Hb) and erythrocyte count (p < 0.05) by showing a symptom like loss of appetite, emaciation and loss of weight in the treated rats. [41]

Clinical Data

Clinical findings

A prospective study of the healing effect of S. alata leaves on Pityriasis versicolor infection was conducted involving 200 individuals (male and female) aged 16–60 years for a period of ten years. The extract applied topically as single application (two hours before sleep) over the infected area showed healing effect at third week of treatment with repigmentation occurring at third month. The lesion required four to ten months to completely heal. Recurrence occurred for a maximum period of one year. [42]

Precautions

It should be used with caution in young children or in patients with inflammatory bowel disease because of its laxative properties. It may cause mild abdominal discomfort such as colic or cramps. [43]

Side effects

A decoction of the leaves was reported to contract chronic diarrhoea when taken excessively. [17]

A toxicity study had reported loss of appetite, emaciation, and loss of weight in rats. [41]

However, no adverse effects have been observed in clinical studies on the leaf extract against Pityriasis versicolor[42]

Pregnancy/Breast Feeding

No documentation.

Age limitation

No documentation.

Adverse reaction

Hypokalemia or hypocalcemia may occur with chronic use. [43]

Interaction & Depletion

No documentation.

Contraindications

The sennosides are contra-indicated in cases of obstruction, acute intestinal inflammation, ulcerative colitis, appendicitis and abdominal pain of unknown origin. [43]

Case Report

No documentation.

Dosage

Dosage Range

No documentation.

Most Common Dosage

Leaf decoction for purgative use and stomach ache (drink and applied on stomach). [44][45]

A bark paste is used for soothing inflammation and shingles. [44]

When using for ringworm, rub the leaf on the infected area or pound and mix with lime before apply mixture to the infected area. [17][46]

A strong leaf and flower decoction has been used as a wash for eczema. [47]

Standardisation

No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing

No documentation.

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Senna alata (L.) Roxb. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2010 July 14; cited 2016 Nov 08]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/ild-988
  2. Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Volume V R-Z. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 2012; p. 236-238.
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