Sida acuta Burm.f.

Last updated: 15 November 2016

Scientific Name

Sida acuta Burm.f.

Synonyms

Malvastrum carpinifolium (L. f.) A. Gray, Malvinda carpinifolia (L.f.) Medik., Malvinda carpinifolia (L. f.) Moench, Sida balbisiana DC., Sida berlandieri Turcz., Sida bodinieri Gand., Sida carpinifolia L.f., Sida chanetii Gand., Sida disticha Sessé & Moc. [Illegitimate], Sida frutescens Cav., Sida garckeana Pol., Sida lancea Gand., Sida lanceolata Retz., Sida planicaulis Cav., Sida scoparia Lour., Sida spiraeifolia Link, Sida spireifolia Willd., Sida stauntoniana DC., Sida stipulata Cav., Sida trivialis Macfad., Sida vogelii Hook. f. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Bunga telur belangkas, lidah ular, sedeguri (Peninsular). [2][3]
English Broom weed, spinyhead sida.; broomgrass, morning mallow.[2] 
Indonesia
  Sidaguri (Javanese); galungang (Sundanese); taghuri (Madurese). [2][3]
Thailand Naa-khui-mee, yaa khat mon (Northern); yung kwaat(Central). [2] 
Philippines Ualisualisan, takkimbaka (Tagalog); pamalis (Tagalog, Bisaya). [2] 
Cambodia Kantrang ba sa. [2] 
Vietnam B[as]i ch[oor]i, ch[oor]i d[uwj]c, b[as]i nk[oj]n. [2] 

Geographical Distributions

Sida acuta is widely distributed in the tropics and common in South Asia. [2] 

Botanical Description

S. acuta is a member of the family Malvaceae. S. acuta is an erect, branched, nearly hairless herb or small shrub, which can grow 30-100 cm tall with a strong taproot, stems and branches are flattened at the tips. [2] 

The leaves are oblong-lance-shaped to linear, 2-9 cm x 0.5-4 cm, acute to rounded base, acute apex, serrate-dentate margins, lower surface is smooth or with short stellate hairs, petiole is 3-6 mm long, at least one stipule of each pair is lance-shaped-linear, 1-2 mm broad, often curved and ciliate while the other is narrower. [2

The flowers are solitary or densely crowded on side-shoots, 1.3 cm in diameter. The pedicel is 3-8 mm. The 6-8 mm long pale yellow petals are emarginated. There are 5-8 mericarps with a size of 3.5 mm long, 2 awns, which are 1-1.5 mm long and hairless. [2

Cultivation

S. acuta grows on roadsides, dams, fields, lawns, waste places and teak-forests, common at sea-level but also up to 1500 m altitude. [2

Chemical Constituent

S. acuta is reported to contain two major constituents; cryptolepine and quindoline.[4] An activity-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of S. acuta plant using a bioassay based on the induction of quinone reductase, revealed ten active compounds; quindolinone, cryptolepinone, 11-methoxyquindoline, N-trans-feruloyltyramine, vomifoliol, loliolide, 4-ketopinoresinol, scopoletin, evofolin-A, and evofolin-B, along with five inactive compounds; ferulic acid, sinapic acid, syringic acid, (+/-) syringaresinol, vanillic acid and quindolinone i.e. 5,10-dimethylquindolin-11-one. [5] 

S. acuta also been reported to contain cryptolepine 5-methylindolo(2-3b)-quinoline, ecdysterone, ephidrine, hentriacontane, and hypolaetin-8-glucoside.[4][6] S.  acuta, S. humilis, S. rhombifolia, and S. spinose is reported to contain three types of alkaloidal constituents, i.e. β-phenethylamines, quinazolines and   carboxylated tryptamines, in addition to choline and betaine. [7] S. acuta is reported to contain the indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine. [8]

Plant Part Used

Leaf and root. [3]

Traditional Use

In Malacca, the leaves and roots of S. acuta had been used for poulticing the chest to treat coughs. The pounded leaves are used to promote the healing of wounds and are also used to address influenza, toothaches, chest pains, ulcers, scabies, abscesses, impotence, gonorrhoea and rheumatism. [2]

Preclinical Data

Pharmacology

Antimicrobial activity

S. acuta has been reported to against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The antibacterial assays were performed by the agar-well diffusion and the broth microdilution for the evaluation of inhibiton zone diameters, MIC and MBC values. The highest inhibition zone diameters were recorded with Gram-positive bacteria. The microdilution assay gave the range of MIC values of 16-400 mg/ml and 80-400 mg/ml in the case of MBC, for different strains. Hence, the two major alkaloids in the extract, identified as cryptolepine and quindoline, exhibited good antimicrobial activity against several test microorganisms. [4] 

Analgesic activity

S.acuta was evaluated by hot plate and tail immersion methods at three dose levels of 100, 300 and 500 mg/ml, i.p. in mice. However, S.acuta extract only showed significant protection of 55% at the highest dose of 500 mg/ml. [6] 

Antiplasmodial activity

S. acuta has been reported to against two strains of Plasmodium falciparum, a chloroquine-sensitive strain and a chloroquine-resistant strain, was reported. The antiplasmodial activity was evaluated by a radioactive micromethod. The IC50 values obtained with various fractions of the plant on P. falciparum culture, ranged from 3.9 to 5.4 mg/ml, confirmed and supported the antiplasmodial activities of such traditional preparations. [9] 

Antimalarial activity

Ethanolic fraction of S. acuta has been reported to show the highest activity with IC50 < 5mg/ml. when tested in vitro on fresh clinical isolates of P. falciparum. [10]

Neutralizing activity against snake venom

S. acuta has been reported to have moderate neutralizing activity (ca. 34%) against the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom at doses up to 4 mg/mouse. [11]

 Toxicity

A study reports a neurologic disease observed for two years in a flock of 28 Anglo-Nubian and Saanen goats grazing in a 5 ha of pasture. The predominant plant in the pasture was S. acuta. Clinical and pathological examinations were performed after administration on three naturally and two experimentally poisoned goats. The neurological disorder, characterised by ataxia, hypermetria, hyperesthesia, and muscle tremors of the head and neck was observed. No significant gross lesions were observed. The results also show that multiple cytoplasm vacuoles in hepatocytes, acinar pancreatic cells, and neurons were the most striking microscopic lesions in all the animals and is consistent with a-mannosidosis, a lysosomal storage disease. The study concluded that with this discovery, the induced a-mannosidosis in goats could be used as a model in comparative pathology and biomedical research. [8]

Clinical Data

No documentation

Dosage

No documentation

Poisonous Management

No documentation

Line drawing

247

Figure 1: The line drawing of S. acuta [2]

References

  1. The Plant List.  Ver1.1. Sida acuta Burm.f. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Apr 18; cited 2016 Dec 14]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-2588280
  2. Perumal B. Sida acuta Burm.f. In: van Valkenburg JLCH, Bunyapraphatsara N, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 12(2): Medicinal and poisonous plants 2. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher, 2001; p. 498-499
  3. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research. Compendium of medicinal plants used in Malaysia. Volume 2. Kuala Lumpur: HMRC IMR, 2002; p. 341-342.
  4. Karou D, Savadogo A, Canini A, et al. Antibacterial activity of alkaloids from Sida acuta. African J Biotechnol. 2006; 5:195-200.
  5. Jang DS, Jung PE, Kang YH, et al. Compounds obtained from Sida acuta with the potential to induce quinone reductase and to inhibit 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced preneoplastic lesions in a mouse mammary organ culture model. Arch Pharma Res. 2003; 26:585-590.
  6. Malairajan P, Gopalakrishnan G, Narasimhan S, Veni KJK. Analgesic activity of some Indian medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol2006; 106:425-428.
  7. Prakash A, Varma RK, Ghosal S. Alkaloid Constituents of Sida acuta, S.humilis, S. rhombifilia and S. spinosa. Planta Med. 2006; 43:384-388.
  8. Driemeier D, Colodel EM, Gimeno EJ, Barros SS. Lysosomal storage disease caused by Sida carpinifolia poisoning in goats. Vet Pathol. 2000; 37(2):153-159.
  9. Banzouzi JT, Prado R, Menan H, et al. Studies on medicinal plants of Ivory Coast: investigation of Sida acuta for in vitro antiplasmodial activities and identification of an active constituent. Phytomedicine. 2004; 11(4):338-341.
  10. Karou D, Dicko MH, Sanon S, Simpore J, Traore AS. Antimalarial activity of Sida acuta Burm. f. (Malvaceae) and Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. (Fabaceae). J Ethnopharmacol. 2003; 89:291-294.
  11. Otero R, Núñez V, Barona J, et al. Snakebites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of Colombia. Part III: Neutralization of the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000; 73:233-244.