Sida cordifolia L.

Last updated: 22 December 2016

Scientific Name

Sida cordifolia L.

Synonyms

Sida altheifolia Sw., Sida conferta Link, Sida decagyna Schumach. & Thonn. ex Schumach., Sida herbacea Cav., Sida holosericea Willd. ex Spreng., Sida maculata Cav., Sida micans Cav., Sida pellita Kunth, Sida pungens Kunth, Sida rotundifolia Lam., Sida rotundifolia Lam. ex Cav., Sida velutina Willd. ex Spreng. [1] 

Vernacular Name

English Country mallow, bala, sida, ellu, goma, hamo, hnan, huma, khareti, kunjud, sesam, sesame, sesamum, tala, tel, til. [2][3]

Geographical Distributions

Sida cordifolia is an annual originating in tropical and subtropical areas of India and Nepal, though now widely cultivated throughout India and other parts of the world where the tropical climate can be replicated. [3]

Botanical Description

S. cordifolia is a member of Malvaceae family. It is an erect, perennial undershrub, up to 1 m tall.  The stems areascending, terete or sulcate, softly villious and densely stellate-pubescent all over. The leaves are ovate or ovate-oblong, obtuse or subacute at apex. The flowers are yellow, peduncles, axillary, jointed much above the panicles, upper flowers nearly sessile and fasciculate towards the tip of the branches forming subspicate inflorescence. The fruits subdiscoid, 6-8 mm across, mericarps 10, 3 sided. The seeds are trigonous, glabours, tufted-pubescent near the hilum. [2]

Cultivation

No documentation.

Chemical Constituent

S. cordifolia has been reported to contain alkaloid ephedrine. It should be noted that the seeds contain about four times as much of this alkaloid as other parts of the plant. Additionally, the plant contains mucins, phytosterols, potassium nitrate, and resin and resin acids. [3]

Plant Part Used

Root, bark, leaves, flowers and seeds. [2]

Traditional Use

S. cordifolia has use in certain respiratory disorders, including but not limited to asthma, nasal congestion and phthisis. [2][4] S. cordifolia is also quite useful in many blood and urine related disorders, as it has been classified as a cardiac stimulant. [2] In a traditional root infusion, S. cordifolia has been used to treat blood in the urine, blood and bile disorders, cystitis, gonorrhea spermatorrhea and leucorrhea. Additionally, S. cordifolia has traditional indications in the treatment of dysentery, rheumatism, fever, and facial paralysis. [3] Ayurvedic medicine also indicates that S. cordifolia may be used in insanity and other mental disorders. It taste is described as madhura (sweet). S. cordifolia has a sita virya, indicating that it has a cooling effect on the body, and pacifies the pitta dosha while stimulating the kapha dosha. [2][3]

Preclinical Data

Pharmacology

Study in 2003 had reported that S. cordifolia shown to have antioxidant properties. [5] According to a 1999 study, ethyl acetate of S. cordifolia has been reported to have both analgesic and hypoglycemic properties. [6]

S. cordifolia has been reported to exhibit a depressive effect on the central nervous system and a low toxicity in mice. [7]

An aqueous solution of S. cordifolia has been reported to stimulate liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in rats. [8] Additionally, animal studies showed that S. cordifolia to have vasorelaxative [9], hypotensive and bradycardic effects. [10]

Toxicity

No documentation.

Clinical Data

Clinical findings

S. cordifolia has been reported to have beneficial effects on treatment of Parkinson’s disease when used in combination with Mucuna pruriensHyoscyamus reticulatus and Withania somnifera. The study observed 18 people clinically diagnosed with Parkinson’s, all of whom took a milk concoction of the aforementioned herbs. Thirteen subjects participated in a 28 day cleanse beforehand while the remaining five subjects did not. Only the subjects who cleansed before the treatment showed improved activity in daily life. Side effects included excessive salivation. [11]

Precautions

No documentation.

Side effects

No documentation.

Pregnancy/Breast Feeding

Not to be used by pregnant or nursing women. [3]

Age limitation

Not intended for use by anyone under the age of 18.[3]

Adverse reaction

While there are no studies reporting serious adverse events with this particular herb, nevertheless, it does contain ephedrine alkaloids and therefore the relative precautions should be noted. Discontinue use and call a health care professional immediately if you experience rapid heartbeat, dizziness, severe headache, shortness of breath, or similar symptoms. [3]

Interaction & Depletion

Interaction with drug

If you are using a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) or any other prescription drug, or you are using an over-the-counter drug containing ephedrine, pseudoephedrine or phenylpropanolamine (ingredients found in certain allergy, asthma, cold/cough and weight control products). Potential interactions exist with central nervous system stimulants and decongestants.[3][4]

Interaction with other Herbs

No documentation

Contraindications

No documentation.

Dosage

Dosage Range

100-300 mg, one to three times per day of standardized extract.[3][4]

Most Common Dosage

150 mg standardized to 8% ephedra alkaloids.[3][4]

Standardisation

There are gross variations in the standardization of S. cordifolia with product in the marketplace showing extracts ‘standardized’ to from 4-25% ephedra alkaloids. Caution is advised in using any ‘standardized’ form of this herb as the intent of the standardization is to increase the level of ephedra. [3][4]

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing

No documentation.

References

  1. The Plant List.  Ver1.1. Sida cordifolia  [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Apr 18; cited 2016 Dec 13]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-2595669
  2. Khareti or Bala (Sida cordifolia Linn.) Pankaj Oudhia. Society for Parthenium Management (SOPAM), Purdue University. [homepage on the Internet]. c2015 [updated 2015 June 30; cited 2016 Dec 13]. Available from: https://hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/CropFactSheets/bala.html
  3. Kapoor LD. CRC handbook of ayurvedic medicinal plants. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 1990. p. 303.
  4. Franzotti EM, Santos CV, Rodrigues HM, Mourão RH, Andrade MR, Antoniolli AR. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic activity and acute toxicity of Sida cordifolia L. (Malva-branca) J Ethnopharmacol. 2000;72(1-2):273-277.
  5. Auddy B, Ferreira M, Blasina F, Lafon L, Arredondo F, Dajas F, Tripathi PC, Seal T, Mukherjee B. Screening of antioxidant activity of three Indian medicinal plants, traditionally used for the management of neurodegenerative diseases. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;84(2-3):131-138.
  6. Philip BK, Muralidharan A, Natarajan B, Varadamurthy S, Venkataraman S. Preliminary evaluation of anti-pyretic and anti-ulcerogenic activities of Sida cordifolia methanolic extract.  Fitoterapia. 2008;79(3):229-231.
  7. Franco CI, Morais LC, Quintans-Júnior LJ, Almeida RN, Antoniolli AR. CNS pharmacological effects of the hydro alcoholic extract of Sida cordifolia L. leaves. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;98(3):275-279.
  8. Silva RL, Melo GB, Melo VA, et al. Effect of the aqueous extract of Sida cordifolia on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy.  Acta Cir Bras. 2006;21(1):37-39.
  9. Santos MR, Nascimento NM, Antoniolli AR, Medeiros IA.  Endothelium-derived factors and k+ channels are involved in the vasorelaxation induced by Sida cordifolia L. in the rat superior mesenteric artery.  Pharmazie. 2006;61(5):466-469.
  10. Medeiros IA, Santos MR, Nascimento NM, Duarte JC. Cardiovascular effects of Sida cordifolia leaves extract in rats. Fitoterapia. 2006;77(1):19-27.
  11. Nagashayana N, Sankarankutty P, Nampoothiri MR, Mohan PK, Mohanakumar KP.  Association of L-DOPA with recovery following ayurveda medication in parkinson's disease.  J Neurol Sci. 2000;176(2):124-127.