Murdannia nudiflora (L.) Brenan

Last updated: 08 May 2017

Scientific Name

Murdannia nudiflora (L.) Brenan

Synonyms

Aneilema bracteolatum var. majus Seub., Aneilema bracteolum var. minus Seub., Aneilema compressum Dalzell, Aneilema compressum Dalzell, Aneilema debile Wall. [Invalid], Aneilema diandrum Buch.-Ham. ex Wall. [Invalid], Aneilema diversifolium Hassk., Aneilema foliosum Hassk., Aneilema junghunianum Miq., Aneilema lancifolium Griff., Aneilema malabaricum (L.) Merr., Aneilema minutum (Blume) Kunth, Aneilema nudicaule (Burm.f.) G.Don, Aneilema nudiflorum (L.) Sweet, Aneilema nudiflorum (L.) R.Br., Aneilema nudiflorum var. compressum (Dalzell) C.B.Clarke, Aneilema radicans D.Don, Aneilema trichocoleum Schauer, Callisia parvula Brandegee, Commelina chinensis Osbeck, Commelina diandra Steud. [Invalid], Commelina exilis Steud. [Invalid], Commelina minuta Blume, Commelina nudicaulis Burm.f., Commelina nudiflora L., Commelina nudiflora f. angustifolia C.B.Clarke, Commelina radicans (D.Don) Spreng., Commelina sellowii Schltdl., Cyanotis gueinzii Hassk., Ditelesia nudiflora (L.) Raf., Murdannia malabarica (L.) G.Brückn., Murdannia malabarica var. compressa (Dalzell) Santapau & S.K.Jain, Phaeneilema diversifolium (Hassk.) G.Brückn., Phaeneilema malabarica (L.) Naryanasw. & Biswas, Phaeneilema malabaricum (L.) V. Naray., Phaeneilema nudiflorum (L.) G.Brückn., Stickmannia guyanensis Raf., Sticmannia longicollis Raf., Tradescantia cristata Fern.-Vill. [Illegitimate], Tradescantia malabarica L. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Kukupu, tapak eti [2], kekupu; auwe-auwe (Minangkabau) [3]
English Butter curry plant, [2] spreading dayflower [4] nakedstem dewflower, day flower [5]
India Chitrebans, dawg, kandule, kanshura, kansura, katsapriya, kina, koshapushpi, vazhapazhathi, velichibhaji, [2] choti kankaua, [4]
Nepal Kane [2]
Bangladesh Kundali [4]
Pakistan Kanshura [2]
Indonesia Urip urip, [2] gewor, kali kandang (Sunda); brambangan, jeboran (Jawa); awarang (Makassar); awerang (Bugis); dobidobiki (Halmahera Utara); [3] tapak burung [4]
Thailand Kinkungnoi, phak-prap, [2] kinkung noi [4]
Laos Kaab [2]
Philippines Kabilao (Bisaya); Kolasi, kulkulasi (Ilocano); alikbangon (Tagalog)[4]; katkatauang (Bontoc); kohasi (Ibatan); bangar na lalake (Ifuguo)
Vietnam C[or] trai, th[af]i l[af]it r[aws]ng, [2] lao-trai hoa-tran [4]
France Herbe aux archons [5]

Geographical Distributions

Murdannia nudiflora is native to Asia Occurs in both tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. This weed also present in upland rice in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. [4]

Botanical Description

M. nudiflora is a member of the Commelinaceae family. [1] It is a slender, nearly smooth, creeping annual or perennial herb. [4]

The stem is simple to branched 15-30 cm long, reclining on the ground with rooting at the nodes. [4]

The roots are fibrous. [4]

The leaves are rather thick, linear to linear oblong, alternate, narrowed into a base sheath, entire, acute, tapering to a point with sides incurved, measuring 3-10 cm long and 4-10 mm wide. The sheath is 5-10 mm long, with fine and soft hair in front. [4]

The inflorescence terminal or axillary, peduncles measure 3-7 cm long, sometimes with a single bract. [4]

The flowers numerous, measure about 5 mm across, blue or pink-purple, racemosely clustered near the ends of the few branches. The pedicels measure 3-4 mm long, slightly recurved; bracts about 3 mm long, boat-haped, falling off very early; sepals 3, measure 1.5-2.5 mm long, oblong, hairy, obtuse; petals 3. The capsules nearly spherical, three angled measure 4 mm long, about 2 mm broad, membranous, tipped with an abrupt short point, 3-loculed with 2 seeds in each locule. [4]

The seeds measure about 1 mm long, subtriangular, tubercles, dark brown. [4]

Cultivation

No documentation.

Chemical Constituent

No documentation.

Plant Part Used

Whole plant. [6]

Traditional Use

Symptoms of influenza, common cold are treated by the use of M. nudiflora plant amongst the Chinese and in the Caribbean and Trinidad. It is also used to ally cough especially those with sticky phlegm, haemoptysis and tuberculosis. [5]

Like most weeds, M. nudiflora also possesses diuretic properties. This had been made used of in the treatment of various urinary diseases notably urinary tract infections including cystitis, dysuria and strangury. It is also used in cases of oedema including ascites. [5]

The Hawaiians considered the plant as a blood purifier and an infusion of the plant together with other plants are given for this purpose. Its haemostatic properties are being made used of in treating bleeding wounds in the field. It also form the basis of its use in the treatment of haemorrhoids and of epistaxis. In Sierra Leone, the plant is made used of in the dressing of circumcision. [5]

The juice of the plant is dropped into the eyes to treat conjunctivitis and other ophthalmic. Interestingly, it is used in removing dirt and grit from the eyes by the Hawaiians effectively. The Chinese made use of the juice or decoction as a gargle to treat various throat infections including acute tonsillitis, laryngitis and pharyngitis. Juice from the plant is dropped into the ears to treat otitis media in India and China. [5]

The plant is useful for the relieved of pain and swelling related to the musculo-skeletal system. The Chinese uses it to treat rheumatoid arthritis; the Fijians use it for fracture bones. It has also been advocated in the treatment of cramps. [5]

Apart from its use in skin infections and influenza, M. nudiflora is also used to treat Mumps and for this the juice of the fresh plant is given orally to the patient. [5]

C. nudiflora is a universal plant for the treatment of venomous bites. This includes its used in the treatment of snake bites by various tribes. For snake bites the juice of the plant is given orally and it is advised that this is followed by local application of an antidote. [5]

The Latin Americans and Indians use the plant to treat inflamed uterus, dysmenorrhoea and abnormal uterine bleeding. It is also used to treat vaginal discharge, gonorrhoea. The Nigerians made used of decoction of the roots for this purpose. In the Congo the people believed the leaves to possess aphrodisiac properties. [5]

In China, M. nudiflora is used to treat intestinal obstruction and a decoction of the whole plant is used to treat diarrhoea. It is topically applied on haemorrhoids, a remedy used by the Chinese and Mexicans for this common malady. The Egyptians made use of the plant for stomach problems while the Fijians use is as a digestive aid. [8]

The Indians considered the plant as antidermatosis [9]. Thus, the bruised plants is applied over burn, itches and boils [8]. In Malaysia the starchy leaves are applied over scurfs [9].

The plant is used to ease flow of menstruation and as an emmenagogue 15 g of the fresh leaves in the form of a decoction is given twice a day. [9]

In Malaysia it is used to treat scorpion bites. [10]

Preclinical Data

Pharmacology

Nutritive and antinutritive activity

The aqueous leaf extract of M. nudiflora conatins saponin, alkaloids and flavonoids. It contains 88.63% moisture, 5.67% carbohydrate, 41.60 mg/100 g dry weight vitamin C, 66.20 mg/100 g vitamin B3 and 8.70 mg/100 g vitamin B2. Mineral contents of defatted leaf extract were Na (75.55 mg/100 g), Ca (240.00 mg/100 g) and Mg (6.63 mg/100 g). This suggest that the leaves can be a cheap source of vitamin C, B3 and B2, as well as other macro- and micro-nutrients and can be incorporated into human and animal diet to meet their recommended daily allowances. [11]

Toxicity

M. nudiflora is harmful to sheep. It can cause foaming at the mouth and death if taken in big amounts. [6]

Clinical Data

No documentation.

Dosage

No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing

No documentation.

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Murdania nudiflora (L.) Brenan. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 23; cited 2017 May 08]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-254705.
  2. Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Volume IV M-Q. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 2012; p. 218.
  3. Commelina nudiflora L. [cited 2017 May 08]. Available from: http://www.warintek.hol.es/artikel/ttg_tanaman_obat/depkes/buku4/4-026.pdf
  4. Galinato MI, Moody K, Piggin CM. Upland rice weeds of South and Southeast Asia. Los Banos: International Rice Research Institute, 1999; p. 33.
  5. Philippines Medicinal Plants. Alikbangon. Commelina diffusa Burm. f. [homepage on the Internet]. No date [updated 2016 Feb; cited 2017 May 08]. Available from: http://www.stuartxchange.com/Alikbangon.html.
  6. Bizimana N. Traditional veterinary practice in Africa. GmbH, Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), 1994; p. 434.
  7. Nadkarni KM. Dr. K. M. Nadkarni's Indian materia medica: Volume 1. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan Pvt. Ltd., 2005; p. 374.
  8. Moerman DE. Native American medicinal plants: An ethnobotanical dictionary. Portland: Timber Press Inc, 1998; p. 316.
  9. Ong HC, Nordiana M. Malay ethno-medico botany in Machang, Kelantan, Malaysia. Fitoterpia. 1999;70(5):502-513.
  10. Zakaria M, Mohd MA. Traditional Malay medicinal plants. Kuala Lumpur: Institut Terjemahan Negara Malaysia Bhd. 1994; p. 130.
  11. Ujowundu CO, Igwe CU, Enemor VHA, Nwaogu LA, Okafor OE. Nutritive and anti-nutritive properties of Boerhavia diffusa and Commelina nudiflora leaves. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2008;7(1):90-92.