Smilax myosotiflora A.DC.

Last updated: 3 June 2016

Scientific Name

Smilax myosotiflora A.DC.  

Synonyms

No synonyms [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Akar ali, akar tanding, akar dedingin (Peninsular) [2]; akar ding, itah visi [3], ubi jaga, ali bertinggung, akar resting, kerating, itah besi, ubi besi, keleh, manto [4].

Geographical Distributions

Smilax myosotiflora is a member of Smilacaceae family. S. myosotiflora is native in Peninsular Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. [4]

Botanical Description

S. myosotiflora is a herbaceous climber; the stem is slender but very tough and rigid, branching loosely, light green and very smooth.

The plant has a presence of nodes and internodes about 2-15 cm long. Occasionally rooting occurs at the nodes and adheres to the ground.

The leaves are lanceolate or broadly elliptic. The base of the leaf is broad and gradually cuneated or suddenly acuminated apex, 8-17 cm long, 2-15 cm broad, grass green on the adaxial side while paler green on the abaxial side of the leaf, densely veined, marginal nerves slightly thickened; petiol 7-25 mm long.

The tendrils 6-13 cm long, slender, often becoming brownish. It’s inflorescence umbels and axillary together with tendrils, peduncles 1-4 cm long, pistilate umbels 8-14 flowered, staminate perianth yellow-green 3.5-4.2 mm long, 4-5 mm wide, connate, lobed to 2.5 from top; outer lobes oblong, 1.5 mm wide, inner lobe is half as long as the outer ones. [5]

Cultivation

No documentation

Chemical Constituent

S. myosotiflora has been reported to contain stigmasterol, sitosterol, campesterol. [6]

Plant Part Used

Leaves, fruits and rhizomes [4]

Traditional Use

The rhizome is consumed for aphrodisiac purposes while the leaves and the fruits are used for syphilis. [7]

Preclinical Data

Pharmacology

Extracts from this plant possess significant activity against enterobacterial infections in humans. [8] Also, this plant was able to counteract the inhibitory effects of glycyrrhizic acid (active ingredient of liquorice) [9], and the deleterious effect of corticosterone (glucocorticoid) [10], on testicular 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase oxidative activity, as well as plasma testosterone levels in intact rats. Further studies also show that this plant and deoxycorticosterone (corticosteroid) competitively blocked each other at the glucocorticoid receptor affecting the above oxidative activity and as such, administration of this plant counteracted the effects of deoxycorticosterone on plasma testosterone levels in normal rats. [11] In addition, this plant counteracted the effects of dexamethasone (glucocorticoid) on plasma testosterone and estradiol levels in normal rats. [7]

Toxicity

No documentation

Clinical Data

Clinical findings

No documentation

Interaction & Depletion

No documentation

Dosage

Standardisation

No standard marker reported. Other standard profiles have been documented in the Malaysian Herbal Monograph. [3]

Poisonous Management

No documentation

Line drawing

No documentation

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Smilax myosotiflora A.DC. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 26; cited 2016 June 3]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-289354
  2. Teo SP. Smilax myosotiflora A.DC. In: de Padua LS, Bunyapraphatsara N, Lemmens RHMJ. editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 12(1): Medicinal and poisonous plants 1. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher, 1999; p. 453.
  3. Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Volume III R-Z. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 2012; p. 304
  4. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research. Compendium of medicinal plants used in Malaysia. Volume 2. Kuala Lumpur: HMRC IMR, 2002; p. 346
  5. Zhari I, Norhayati I, and Jaafar L. Malaysian herbal monograph. Volume 1. Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Monograph Committee; 1999.
  6. Hasnah O, Shaida SF. Sterols from the rhizomes of Malaysian Smilax myosotiflora ADC. Proceedings of the International Conference on Traditional/Complementary Medicine, Legend Hotel, Kuala Lumpur. 2000:44.
  7. Perry LM, Metzger J. Medicinal plants of East and Southeast Asia; Attributed properties and uses. Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Press; 1980.
  8. Damayanthi D, Nwe KHH, Hamid A, Aminuddin AHK, Azman MAB. The effects of Ubi Jaga (Smilax myosotiflora) on rat testicular 11βhydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity and plasma testosterone levels in the presence of glycyrrhizic acid. Proceeding of the International Conference on Traditional/Complementary Medicine, Legend Hotel, Kuala Lumpur. 2000:36.
  9. Damayanthi D, Nwe KHH, Hamid A, Aminuddin AHK, Azman MAB. Abstract of the 11th International Congress of Endocrinology (ICE 2000), Sydney, Australia. 2000:16.
  10. Damayanthi D, Nwe KHH, Hamid A, Aminuddin AHK, Azman MAB. The effects of Ubi Jaga (Smilax myosotiflora) on rat testicular 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase oxidative activity and plasma testosterone levels in the presence of deoxycorticosterone. Proceeding of the 16th Scientific Meeting of the Malaysian Society of Pharmacology and Physiology, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur. 2001:8.
  11. Damayanthi D, Azman MAB, Aminuddin AHK, Hamid A, New KHH. The effects of Smilax myosotiflora and dexamethasone on testicular 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase oxidative activity and plasma hormonal levels in normal rats. Proceeding of the 18th Malaysian Society of Pharmacology and Physiology Scientific Meeting, Hospital UKM, Kuala Lumpur. 2003:75-76.