Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Roscoe ex Sm.

Last updated: 21 Feb 2017

Scientific Name

Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Roscoe ex Sm.

Synonyms

Amomum silvestre Poir., Amomum spurium (J.Koenig) J.F.Gmel., Amomum sylvestre Lam. [Illegitimate], Amomum zerumbet L., Cardamomum spurium (J.Koenig) Kuntze, Dieterichia lampujang Giseke, Dieterichia lampuyang Giseke, Dieterichia major Raeusch., Dieterichia minor Reusch., Dietrichia spuria (J.Koenig) Giseke, Zerumber zingiber T.Lestib., Zingiber amaricans Blume, Zingiber aromaticum Valeton, Zingiber blancoi Hassk., Zingiber darceyi H.J.Veitch, Zingiber littorale (Valeton) Valeton, Zingiber ovoideum Blume, Zingiber spurium J.Koenig, Zingiber sylvestre Garsault [Invalid], Zingiber truncatum Stokes, Zingiber zerumbet var. littoralis Valeton, Zingiber zerumbet var. magnum Elmer, Zingiber zerumbet subsp. zerumbet. [1]

Vernacular Name

English Shampoo ginger, stone ginger, wild ginger [2]
China Hong qiu jiang [2]
India Agale shunti, agaleshunthi, agalesunthi, agalu shunti, agalusunthi, ahava, araniyacaranai, auruq-ul-kafoor, Avanti, banadrak, banooda, bomiki, bon ada, cirrinci, gathian, kaadu kolinjana, kaadu shuntee, kaadu shunti, kaali halad, kaarallamu, kaarupasupu, kallu shunti, kallusunthi, kallusunti, kapoor kachili, kapur kachri, kapur-kachri, kapurkachri, karallamu, kaapoora haridar, karpuracharidra, karupasupu, kathu-inshi-kua, katinci, katouinschikua, kattinchi, kattinci, kattincikuva, kattinji, kattinjikuva, kattu-inschi-kua, kazhur, kolanjan, kolanjana, kulanjan, kumbhika, la-tumang, lampoyang, ma-nam, maha bari bach, mahabari bach, mahabari-bach, mahabarich, manam, murada, narkachoor, nar kachur, narakchora, narkachur, narkachur nim koafta, narkachur nim kofta, ramshora, ran-alem, rumithing, santapasupu, satwal, sthulagranthi, talang, vanaarttirakam, viranam, yaimu, zadwar, zarambad, zaranbad, zaranbad nim kofta, zarnabad, zarnabad nim kofta, zhuranbad [2]
Bangladesh Murada [2]
Thailand Haeo dam, hieo daen, hieo khaa, ka aen, ka thue, ka thue paa, ka waen, ple-pho [2]
Japan Hana-shôga [2]
Hawaii ‘awapuhi, ‘awapuhi kuahiwi, ‘opuhi [2]
Tonga Angoango. [2]

Geographical Distributions

Zingiber zerumbet is native to Southeast Asia and has been widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical areas around the world, and has naturalized in some areas. [3]

Botanical Description

Z. zerumbet is a member of Zingiberaceae family. [1] It is a perennial plant that grows to about 2.1 m tall. [3][4]

Stems are usually short, replaced by pseudostems formed by leaf sheaths. [3][4]

It has tuberous or non-tuberous rhizomes, often with tuber-bearing roots. [3][4]

Leaves with long narrow arranged oppositely along the stem, having 10-12 blade-shaped leaves with 15-20 cm long, grow on thin, upright stem. [3][4]

Inflorescence resembled by separate stalks grows out of the ground with green cone-shaped bracts drought season and turns red over a couple of weeks. 3-10 cm long with overlapping scales, enclosing small yellowish-white flowers, fill with an aromatic, slimy liquid and turn a brighter red colour when matured, flower stalks usually remain hidden beneath the leaf stalks. [3][4]

Flowers small, creamy yellow appear on the reddish-green cone. Fruit a capsule, fleshy or dry, dehiscent or indehisce sometimes berrylike. [3][4]

Seeds are few to many and arillate. The aril often lobed or lacerate. [3][4]

Cultivation

No documentation.

Chemical Constituent

Methanol extract of Z. zerumbet dried rhizome has been reported to contain sesquiterpenes (e.g. 5-hydroxyzerumbone, zerumboneoxide), [5] and zerumbone [6].

Essential oil of Z. zerumbet rhizomes, leaves, and flowers have been reported to contain sesquiterpenes (e.g. zerumbone, α-humulene, p-caryophyllene, 6-cadinene, (Z)-nerolidol, (E)-nerolidol, caryophyllene oxide and humulene oxide II); monoterpene (e.g. camphene, tricyclene, α-thujene, β-pinene, myrcene, α-phellandrene, 3-carene, p-cymene,); terpene (e.g. α-pinene, limonene, 1,8 cineole-γ-terpinene, fenchone, terpinolene, terpinen-4-ol, isoborneol, borneol); terpene alcohol (e.g. linalool); terpenoid (e.g. camphor citronellal); monoterpene alcohol (e.g. α-terpineol); Ester (e.g. bornyl acetate). [7]

Z. zerumbet rhizomes has been reported to contain p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillin, kaempferol-3,4',7-O-trimethylether, kaempferol-3-O-methylether, kaempferol-3,4'-O-dimethylether, 4''-O-acetylafzelin, kaempferol-3-O-(4-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnopyranoside)], 2'',4''-O-diacetylafzelin, kaempferol-3-O-(2,4-O-diacetyl-α-L-rhamnopyranoside)], 3'',4''-O-diacetylafzelin, and kaempferol-3-O-(3,4-O-diacetyl-α-L rhamnopyranoside)]. [8]

Plant Part Used

Cones, [3] rhizomes, leaves, and flowers [5][6][7][8].

Traditional Use

A decoction of Z. zerumbet rhizome was used for stomachache. [9]

Z. zerumbet is most widely known around the world as the "Shampoo Ginger". It is in fact used as a shampoo in Asia and Hawaii, and is one of the ingredients in several commercial shampoos. Z. zerumbet was applied for sprains, indigestion and other ailments. The pulp from the grounded roots was wrapped in cloth and loosely bound around the injured area. The ground and strained root material was mixed with water and drunk to ease stomach ache.  In Polynesia and Hawaii, Z. zerumbet is used against toothache and stomach ache. [10]

For toothache or cavity, the cooked and softened rhizome of Z. zerumbet was pressed into the hollow until the pain subsides. [3]

Preclinical Data

Pharmacology

Antiparasitic activity

Chloroform extract of Z. zerumbet rhizome showed antiamoebic activity with inhibition concentration at 50% (IC50) of 196.9 ± 37.0 µg/mL compared to metronidazole (IC50 = 1.1 ± 0.10 µg/mL) against Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites. [11]

Chloroform extract of Z. zerumbet rhizome (31.25–1000 µg/mL) showed antigiardial activity with IC50 of 69.02 ± 0.92 µg/mL compared to metronidazole (IC50 = 0.48 ± 0.02 µg/mL) against Giardia intestinalis trophozoites. [12]

Antimicrobial activity

Crude ethanol extract of Z. zerumbet rhizome and its fractions of petroleum ether and chloroform (400 µg/disc) inhibited the growth of Candida albicansAspergillus niger and Sacharomyces cerevaceae with zone of inhibition ranging from 6-9 mm compared to kanamycin (31 mm) using disc diffusion method. [13]

Crude ethanol extract of Z. zerumbet rhizome and its fractions, petroleum ether and chloroform (400 µg/disc) respectively inhibited the growth of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella typhi, Shigella boydii, Shigella dysenteriae, Vibrio mimicus and Vibrio parahemolyticus with zone of inhibition ranging from 6-10 mm compared to Kanamycin (30-31 mm) using disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for B. cereus, S. lutea, V. parahemolyticus, E. coli,S. typhi and P. aeruginosa were 128-256 µg/mL for all the studied extract and fractions. [13]

Zerumbone from aqueous extract of Z. zerumbet rhizome (0.13–13.00 mg/mL) inhibited the growth of Salmonella choleraesuis with inhibition zone diameter ranging from 7-11 mm compared to streptomycin (17 mm) using disc diffusion assay. [14]

Anti-inflammatory activity

Methanol (80%) extract of Z. zerumbet rhizome (25-100 mg/kg) was administered subcutaneously to Sprague Dawley rats (180-200 g; 8-10 weeks old) 30 min before induction of paw edema using carrageenan. After 120 min, different concentrations of the extract showed significant (p < 0.05) reduction in paw edema volume (0.34-0.12 mL) compared to untreated control group (0.42-0.3 mL). [15]

The methanol extract of Z. zerumbet rhizome (25-100 mg/kg) administered subcutaneously to Sprague Dawley rats (180-200 g; 8-10 weeks old) 30 min before induction of inflammation using cotton-pellet significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the weight of exudate (0.3-0.5 g) and cells in granuloma tissues (0.06-0.08 g), in a dose dependent manner, compared to untreated control group (exudates: 0.68 g; cells: 0.06 g). [15]

The aqueous extract (50 100 mg/kg) of Z. zerumbet rhizomes given intraperitoneally (i.p.) produced significant anti-inflammatory activity, similar to that elicited by mefenamic acid (20 mg/kg, i.p.), in a prostaglandin E2-induced rat paw edema model with maximal effects seen at 0.5-1 hour. The anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous extract was dose-dependent as a low dose (25 mg/kg) did not produce significant changes.  The ethanol extract (25-100 mg/kg) did not exhibit anti-inflammatory effects in this model. [16]

Antinociceptive activity

Methanol (80%) extract of Z. zerumbet rhizome (100 mg/kg) administered to male Balb/c mice (25-30 g; 5-7 weeks old) 30 min before induction of abdominal constriction using acetic acid significantly (p<0.05) decreased the number of writhing (54.4 ± 8.1) compared to untreated control group (120.3 ± 10.2). [15]

The methanol extract of Z. zerumbet rhizome (100 mg/kg) administered to male Balb/c mice (25-30 g; 5-7 weeks old) 30 min before induction of pain using hot plate showed significant (p < 0.05) increase in the reaction time (7.1 ± 0.6 s) compared to untreated control group (4.1 ± 0.3 s). [15]

The methanol extract of Z. zerumbet rhizome (25-100 mg/kg) administered to Sprague Dawley rats (180-200 g; 8-10 weeks old) 30 min before induction of pain using formalin showed significant (p < 0.05) decreased in duration of paw licking (19.1-14.3 s) compared to untreated control group (26.1 s). [15]

The methanol extract of Z. zerumbet rhizome (5-10 µg/mL) administered to Sprague Dawley rats (180-200 g; 8-10 weeks old) 30 min before induction of rat ileum contraction using bradykinin showed significant (p < 0.05) dose-dependent decreased (3.0-1.2 g) compared to untreated control group (7.4-2.2 g). [15]

The methanol extract of Z. zerumbet rhizome (5-10 µg/mL) administered to Sprague Dawley rats (180-200 g; 8-10 weeks old) 30 min before induction of rat ileum contraction using prostaglandin showed significant (p < 0.05) dose-dependent decreased (4.0-1.2 g) compared to untreated control group (7.8-1.8 g). [15]

The methanol extract of Z. zerumbet rhizome (5-10 µg/mL) administered to Sprague Dawley rats (180-200 g; 8-10 weeks old) 30 min before induction of rat ileum contraction using histamine showed significant (p < 0.05) dose-dependent decreased (8.8-2.4 g) compared to untreated control group (8.8-3.0 g). [15]

Ethanol extract of Z. zerumbet rhizome (10.0-100.0 mg/kg) administered to male Balb/C mice (25-30 g) 30 min before induction of abdominal constriction using acetic acid significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the number of writhing (5.33-51.30), in a dose-dependent manner, at 10 min compared to morphine (0.2 mg/kg: 33.45; 0.8 mg/kg: 2.01). [17]

Antihypersensitive activity

Aqueous extract of Z. zerumbet rhizome (100 mg/kg) was administered orally to female specific-pathogen-free (SPF) ICR mice (4 weeks old) for 56 days. Aqueous extract of Z. zerumbet rhizome decreased the level of tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-4 (IL-4) in vitroIn vivo, mice treated with the aqueous extract of Z. zerumbet (100 mg/kg) for 56 days show higher ratios of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) / IL-4 mRNA in their splenocytes compared to the control group (p<0.05). The results show that the aqueous extract has the capacity in diminishing hypersensitive reaction since increased level of IFN-γ/IL-4 indicates reduction of allergic asthmatic reaction. [17]

Anticancer activity

Zerumbone isolated from essential oil of Z. zerumbet rhizome significantly inhibited the proliferation of cervical cancer cell line (HeLa cell) in time-dependent manner (24, 48 and 72 hours). The IC50 of zerumbone towards cell viability was 20.30 ± 1.2 µM/mL compared to cisplatin (5.45 ± 0.44 µM/mL). [14]

Diethyl ether fraction of ethanol (95%) extract of Z. zerumbet rhizome showed antitumor activity on murine lymphoid neoplasm (P-388D1) cell with IC50 of 60.67 µg/mL at 12 hours and 12.41 µg/mL at 72 hours compared to positive control adriamycin (12 hours: 0.20 µg/mL and 72 hours: 0.05 µg/mL) using MTT assay. [18]

Diethyl ether fraction of ethanol (95%) extract of Z. zerumbet rhizome (2.5–10.0 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) prolonged the lifespan of P-388D1 tumor-bearing CDF1 5-week old male mice (25.8–26.2 days: 119.4–121.3% ILS, percentage increase in lifespan) compared to control (21.6 days: 100.0%). [18].

The zerumbone isolated from Z. zerumbet showed potential antiproliferative activity on human hepatoma.   The IC50 of zerumbone in Hep G2 cells, a human liver cancer cell line, was 3.45 ± 0.026 µg/mL. The antiproliferative effects were time-dependent and were selective for malignant cells as zerumbone’s IC50 values in non malignant Chang liver cells and non-malignant MDBK cells were 10.96 ± 0.059 µg/mL and 10.02 ± 0.03 µg/mL, respectively.  The mechanism of cell death in HepG2 cells was by apoptosis as zerumbone (3.45 µg/mL) up-regulated the expression of Bax (a pro-apoptotic protein) while decreasing that of Bcl-2, anti-apoptotic protein.  This was confirmed by the finding that zerumbone enhanced DNA fragmentation and induced a time-dependent increase in the apoptotic index which is a score of the percentage of apoptotic cells and apoptotic bodies within the overall population of total cells.  Apoptosis-induced cell death by zerumbone was not related to the expression of p53, a tumor suppressor protein, which was not changed by it. [19]

Zerumbone obtained from Z. zerumbet induced apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cell lines. Zerumbone was found to permeate into the basolateral medium as an intact structure in a time-dependent manner. α-humulene, a structural analog of zerumbone lacking the α,ß-unsaturated carbonyl group, did not suppress LOX-1 mRNA expression, indicating that its electrophilic moiety might play pivotal roles in its activities. Further, zerumbone attenuated the expression of SR-A, SR-PSOX, and CD36, but not that of CD68 or CLA-1, leading to a blockade of DiI-acLDL uptake, while it also inhibited the transcriptional activities of activator protein-1 and nuclear factor-ΚB. [20]

The zerumbone isolated from Z. zerumbet is also active as a chemopreventive through suppression of COX-2 expression, inhibition of cell proliferation in the colonic mucosa, and induction of phase II detoxification enzymes. In this study, colonic aberrant crypt foci were induced in rats by three weekly subcutaneous injections of azoxymethane (15 mg/kg body weight).  The rats were fed zerumbone (0.01% or 0.05%) for five weeks beginning from a week before the first dose of azoxymethane.  The lower dose of zerumbone reduced the frequency of aberrant crypt foci by 14% while the higher dose reduced it by 46%.  The expression of COX-2 and prostaglandins in colonic mucosa were significantly reduced by zerumbone.  The cell proliferation activity of crypts as assessed by silver-stained nucleolar organizer regions protein was also significantly reduced by zerumbone. [21]

The zerumbone isolated from Z. zerumbet rhizome has been reported to suppress dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice.  Acute colitis was induced in female mice by including 5% DSS in the drinking water for 1 week. These mice showed pathological symptoms of diarrhea, bloody feces, body weight reduction, mucosal ulceration, and shortening of the large intestine and exhibited colorectal shortening.  Zerumbone was given to the mice a week before the administration of DSS for a total of 2 weeks.  The effects of zerumbone (0.1%) given alone or in combination (0.1% each) with nimesulide, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, on inflammatory biomarkers in colonic mucosa and the histological alterations induced by these agents were assessed.  Zerumbone given alone suppressed DSS-induced colitis and produced significant inhibition of DSS-induced interleukin-1b production (by 34%), reduced PGE2 formation by 73% whereas PGF2a levels were unchanged.  TNF-α levels were lowered by zerumbone (by 29%).  Nimesulide alone suppressed the histological changes induced by DSS but did not affect the inflammatory biomarkers.  The combination of zerumbone and nimesulide produced maximal suppression of inflammatory biomarkers and also significantly suppressed colorectal shortening.  Zerumbone alone or in combination with nimesulide reduced the mean number of erosive or ulcerative lesions per colon (by 33% and 52%, respectively) and attenuated edema formation (by 55% and 68%, respectively) while tissue regeneration was enhanced. [22]

The 6 kaempferol derivatives were extracted from Z. zerumbet, of these, kaempferol-3-O-methyl ether and kaempferol-3,4'-O-dimethyl ether potently inhibited P-glycoprotein. This study looked at the accumulation and efflux of 3H-daunomycin in P-glycoprotein overexpressing multidrug resistant human breast cancer cells.  The effect was similar to that of verapamil, as inhibitor of P-glycoprotein.  There was a three-fold increase in the accumulation of 3H-daunomycin and a decrease in its efflux, suggesting that the kaempferol derivatives from Z. zerumbet may form the basis for the development of anticancer agents that can reverse P-glycoprotein -mediated multidrug resistance in human cancer chemotherapy. [23]

Zerumbone isolated from, Z. zerumbet has been reported to exhibit antiproliferative activity by modulation of NF-ΚB activation. Zerumbone suppressed NF-ΚB activation induced by tumour necrosis factor, okadaic acid, cigarette smoke condensate, phorbol myristate acetate, and H2O2.  The suppression was not cell type specific.  Zerumbone also inhibited constitutively active NF-ΚB.  Consequently, NF-ΚB-regulated gene products were down regulated by zerumbone and this lead to potentiating of apoptosis induced by cytokines and chemotherapeutic agents.  The reduced expression of NF-ΚB-regulated gene products showed correlation with the suppression of TNF-induced invasion activity.  This may be the molecular basis for the prevention and treatment of cancer by zerumbone. [24]

The zerumbone (0.01-10 µM) obtained from the rhizome of Z. zerumbet potently inhibited Epstein Barr virus activation in Raji cells that was induced by the tumour promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate with an IC50 value of 0.14 µM Concentrations of zerumbone below 10 µM were not cytotoxic to Raji cells as well as to hepatoma cells in culture and to normal mouse fibroblasts. [25][26]

Zerumbone isolated from Z. zerumbet inhibited TPA-induced superoxide generation from NADPH-oxidase in dimethylsulfoxide differentiated HL-60 human acute promyelocytic leukemia cells and from xanthine oxidase in AS52 Chinese hamster ovary cells. Thus the chemopreventive effects of zerumbone may be attributed to its ability to mitigate oxidative damage and/or to disrupt signal transduction pathways for carcinogenesis.  Zerumbone also markedly reduced lipopolysaccharide- and interferon-g-stimulated protein expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages.  The release of tumour necrosis factor was also reduced.  The concentration of nitrites and prostaglandin E2 in the medium were reduced by zerumbone while COX-1 expression levels remained unchanged.  Zerumbone exhibited dose-dependent antiproliferative effects on human colonic adenocarcinoma cell lines (LS174T, LS180, COLO 205, COLO320DM) but had less effect on the growth of normal human dermal (2F0C25) and colon (CCD-18 Co) fibroblasts.  Apoptosis was induced in COLO 205 cells as evidenced by mitochondrial transmembrane dysfunction, translocation of phosphatidyl serine and condensation of chromatin. [27]

Antiartherosclerotic activity

Zerumbone showed potential as an antiartherosclerotic agent. Its suppressive effects on TPA-induced oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-1 (LOX-1) mRNA expression was studied in THP-1 human monocyte-like cells and in differentiated colonic adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells which models the human small intestine. Pretreatment of TPA-treated THP-1 cells with zerumbone lead to suppression of LOX-1 mRNA levels that were elevated by TPA with an IC50 value of 9.4 µM.  A key event in artherosclerosis is the unregulated uptake of oxidized LDL via scavenger receptors which are integral membrane proteins.  Zerumbone (10 µM) abolished or reduced the expression of several subclasses of the macrophage scavenger receptors (SR), viz, SR-A, SR-PSOX, CD36 leading to blockade of the uptake of a modified LDL, DiI-acLDL.  The expression of other scavenger receptors, CD-68 and CLA-1, were not affected by zerumbone.  The down regulation in the expression of scavenger receptors by zerumbone (10 µM) was postulated to be partly related to the inhibition of transcriptional activities of activator protein-1 and nuclear factor kB. [20]

Antipyretic activity

The ethanol extract (50 & 100 mg/kg) and the aqueous extract (25, 50 100 mg/kg) of Z. zerumbet elicited antipyretic activity in Brewer’s yeast-induce pyrexia in rats. The antipyretic activity of the ethanol extract was dose-dependent as a lower dose (25 mg/kg) was ineffective.  [28]

Analgesic activity

The ethanol extract of Z. zerumbet showed a dose-dependent analgesic activity. Ethanol extract doses of 25 and 100 mg/kg elicited similar analgesic effects as 0.2 and 0.8 mg/kg morphine, respectively, on acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. The aqueous extract was devoid of analgesic activity. [28]

Anthelminthic activity

The alcoholic extract of Z. zerumbet rhizomes exhibited good in vitro anthelmintic activity against Ascaris lumbricoides. [29]

Antioxidant activity

Zerumbone isolated from Z. zerumbet has been demonstrated to exhibit antioxidant activity. Its ability to induce phase II detoxification enzymes was determined in RL34 cells, a normal rat liver epithelial cell line.  Zerumbone (25 µM) produced a dose- and time-dependent induction of glutathione S-transferase (by 1.5-fold) and elicited a significant increase in the level of the GSTP1-1 protein (3.2 fold of control).  Presence of the a,b-unsaturated carbonyl group in zerumbone is essential for induction of glutathione S-transferase (GST).  CYP1A1 protein level was not affected by zerumbone indicating that it did not activate the metabolic pathway dependent on xenobiotic response element which is contained in and is required for carcinogen-induced expression of some cytochrome P450 isozymes.  The zerumbone also elicited significant induction in the nuclear localization of Nrf2, a transcription factor that binds to the antioxidant response element (ARE) of phase II enzyme genes.  Nrf2 is involved in the activation of gene expression of phase II enzymes. [30]

Zerumbone (25 µM) potentiated the gene expressions of Nrf2/ARE-dependent phase II enzyme genes, viz, g-glutamylcysteine synthetase, glutathione peroxidase, and hemeoxygenase-1.  Zerumbone did not show scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radicals but it was able to elicit a time-dependent increase in GSH levels.  Lowering of GSH to 87% of controls was observed at 1 hour after exposure to zerumbone (25 µM) but this was followed by a rebound increase of up to 286% of control at 24 hour although maximal stimulation of g-glutamylcysteine synthetase (the rate-limiting enzyme for GSH biosynthesis) had occurred at 3 hour.  Glutathione peroxidase activity was increased 2.5 fold by zerumbone (25 µM) at 24 hour.  At this time, hepatocyte lipid peroxidation induced by H2O2/Fe2+ was abolished by zerumbone (25 µM). [30]

5-Hydroxyzerumbone, zerumboneoxide and zerumbone, all isolated from the rhizomes of Z. zerumbet has been reported to inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells with IC50 values of 14.1, 23.5 and 5.4 µM, respectively. [31]

Toxicity

Acute toxicity activity

Both the aqueous and ethanol extracts of Z. zerumbet were non toxic to rats at doses up to 500 mg/kg. [16]

Zerumbone (0.1% added to food pellets) isolated from Z. zerumbet did not cause deaths in female mice given the compound for 2 weeks. [22]

Genotoxicity activity

Zerumbone isolated from methanol extract of Z. zerumbet (1000 mg/kg) administered intraperitoneally to male Sprague-Dawley rats (170-200 g; 6-8 weeks old) for a duration of 24 hours. The extract significantly (p < 0.05) increased the number of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes (MN-PCEs) 0.76 ± 0.16% compared to untreated control group (0.15 ± 0.04%). [32]

Zerumbone isolated from methanol extract Z. zerumbet (40 µM) was treated in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells lines for duration of 48 hours. The extract significantly (p < 0.05) increase in the frequency of binucleated cells with micronucleus (57) compared to ethanol treated group (13). The extract also showed a dose-dependent reduction in cell proliferation reaching statistical significance (p < 0.05) at highest concentration tested, 80 µM compared to untreated control group (2.072).  [32]

Zerumbone isolated from methanol extract Z. zerumbet (80 µM) was treated in human lymphocytes for duration of 24 hours. The extract significantly (p < 0.05) increase in the frequency of binucleated cells with micronucleus (7.5%) compared to ethanol treated group (3.0%). The extract also showed a dose-dependent reduction in cell proliferation reaching statistical significance (p< 0.05) at highest concentration tested, 80 µM compared to untreated control group (1.804). [32]

Clinical Data

No documentation.

Dosage

No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing

278

Figure 1: The line drawing of Z. zerumbet [33].

References

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  2. Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Volume V R-Z. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 2012; p. 839-840.
  3. Floridata Plant Encyclopedia. Zingiber zerumbet. [homepage on the Internet]. c2015 [updated 2011 Apr 03; cited 2017 Feb 21]. Available from: http://floridata.com/Plants/Zingiberaceae/Zingiber%20zerumbet/596.
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