Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe

Last updated: 27 Feb 2017

Scientific Name

Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe

Synonyms

Amomum latifolium Lam., Amomum latifolium Salisb., Amomum zedoaria Christm., Costus luteus Blanco, Costus nigricans Blanco, Curcuma malabarica Velay., Amalraj & Mural., Curcuma pallida Lour., Curcuma raktakanta Mangaly & M.Sabu, Curcuma speciosa Link [Illegitimate], Erndlia zerumbet Giseke, Roscoea lutea (Blanco) Hassk. [Illegitimate], Roscoea nigrociliata Hassk. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Entemu kuning, temu raya [2], temu putih [3], kunchur [4], temu kuning [5][6], temu lawak [7]
English Hidden lily, setwall, turmeric, zedoary root [2], zedoary turmeric, white turmeric [3], wild turmeric [5], long zedoary, round zedoary, zedoary [7]
China Peng e zhu [2], e zhu [6], yu jin [8]
India Adavi-kachhola, adavipasuvu, aidizung, amalanica, ambe haldi, amlavarittira, auruqul-kafur, bana-palua, blokmin, catoorie munjel, chickik, chyrmit loon, cunaittavakkilanku, cunaittavam, cuntiran, cutatali, dravida, durlabha, gandamasti, gandhamula, gandhamulaka, gandhasara, haldi, hinhurh, jadvar khata, jatala, jemsu naro tepetila, kaadu arisina, kaccolakkilanku, kaccolam, kaccoram, kaccura, kach-cholam, kach-churi-kizhanna, kachari, kacharigol, kachcholam, kachchurikizhanna, kachhuraha, kachoeramu, kchoor, kachoora, kachora, kachoram, kachur, kachura, kacoraka, kakhur, kalihaladi, kalpaka, kantapalaci, karccuram, karchura, karcura, karcurah, karppurakiccili, karppurakkicilikkilanku, karpurakam, karshya, kasthooripasupu, kastori-manjal, katchoor, kati, katturimancal, kazhur, keturi, kharal ki hui, kicchilikizhangu, kiccili, kiccili-k-kilanku, kiccilik kilanku, kicchilikizhangu, kiccili, kiccili-k-kilanku, kiccilik kilanku, kiccilikkilanku, kicciliver, kich-chili-gaddalu, kich-chillik-kizhangu, kichchiligaddalu, kichchilik-kishangu, kich-chilik-kizhangu, kichchiligaddalu, kichchilik-kishangu, kichchilikkizhangu, kichili-gaddalu, kichili kilangu, kichili kizhangu, kichilic-kizhanga, kichhiligaddalu, kirandi dakaram, kochora, korankimulum, kotukam, krachura, kua, kurpakatikkilanku, kurupakatitam, kuv, kuva, kuw, mancatpula, mukhya, narakachora, nattukkicilikkilanku, nirvisam, nirvisha, nirvisham, palo, perunkurumpai, pirutupala, pondit, pula, pulai, pula-kizhanna, pulakizhanna, pulakkilanku, pulamulam, pulan-kizhanga, pulan-kizhangu, pulan-kizhanna, pulankilanku, pulankilhangu, pulavin kilanku, ran halad, rui-laru, sathi, sati, shathi, shati, shati haldi, shori, sutha, talaivalipokki, uruk-el-kafur, urukelkafur, vaasanai, kilangu, vanaharidra, vedhya, veppatti, zadwar saida, zarambad, zhuranbad, zurambad, zuranbad [2], niruvisam, kichilikilhangu, poolan kilangu [8], ekangi, kachura, sati, shori (Bengal); kachura (Bombay); kachuri (Gujerati); kachura, kalihaladi (Hindi); kachcholam, kachchurikizhanna, pulakishanna (Malayalam); dravida, durlabha, gandhamulaka, gandhasara, jatala, kalpaka, karchura, karshya, shathi, vedhya (Sanskrit); kichilikilhangu, pulankilhangu (Tamil); kachura (Urdu) [9], dondit, kachora, ran halad [10]
Nepal Kacur, van haledo [6]
Bangladesh Foilla, shoti [2]
Tibetan Dpa-rgod, ka tsu ra [2]
Indonesia Temu putih [2], koneng tegal (Sunda) [6]
Thailand Haeo dam, kha mîn khuen [6], khamin khun (Northern); khamin oi (Central) [7]
Laos ‘khmin2khai [6], khi min khay [7]
Myanmar Thanuwen [7]
Philippines Alimpunying, bolon, ganda, konik, koniko, lampoyang, langkauas, lanhkuas, luyaluyahan, tamahiba, tamo, tamo-kansi, unig [2], alimpuyas, barak, tamahilan [7]
Cambodia Pratiel preah angkaol [7]
Vietnam Nga truat, nghe dam, nghe den [2], bong truât, ngái tim, tam nai [6], ngh[eej] den, nga tru[aa]t, ng[ar]i t[is]m [7]
Japan Gajutsu [2]
Saudi Arabia Gadwar, kurkum, khurkum [2], satwâl, zadwâr [6], zurambad [9]
France Curcuma zédoaire, gingembre bâtard, zédoaire [6], zedoaire [7]
Spain Cedoaria, cetoal [6]
Denmark Zedoar [6]
Netherlands Zedoar, zedoarwortel [6]
Germany Zedoarwurzel, zitwer, zittwer kurkume [6]
Italy Radice di curcuma, zedoaria, zedoaria lunga [6]
Russia Kurkuma zedoarskaia [6]
Portugal Zedoária [6]
Turkey Cevdar, gulpa hamar [6]
Croatia Beli isiot, isiot, setvar [6]
Bosnia Beli isiot, isiot, setvar [6]
Persian Kazhua, urukelkafur [9]

Geographical Distributions

Curcuma zedoaria is probably native to north-eastern India. Distributed through cultivation to South and South-East Asia and probably throughout Malesia, China and Taiwan from where it easily escapes. Occasionally it is cultivated elsewhere (e.g. in Madagascar). [7]

Botanical Description

C. zedoaria is a member of Zingiberaceae family. [1] It is perennial herb, grows up to 1.2 m in height, has both vertical aerial stem or pseudostems and horizontal underground tuberous rootstock or rhizomes. [11][12]

Rhizome conical branched robust, greyish brown to brown outside and pale yellowish inside. [7]

Leaves erect, glabrous, elliptic-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, up to 81 cm long, 18 cm wide, green with purple hue along the midrib. [11][12] The leaf sheaths are 35-60 cm long while the blades are oblong to oblong-lance-shaped. They are 25-75 cm x 7-20 cm, green with a purple band along the midrib. [7]

The inflorescence is on a separate shoot, cylindrical, 10–20 cm long, 8–15 cm wide, arises from a leafless underground stem. The bracts are green, sometimes with a purple margin. The coma bracts are purple or dark pink. The yellowish-white petal is 3.5-4.5 cm long. Its labellum is 2-2.5 cm x 1.5-2 cm, yellowish-white with a darker yellow median band. The other stamen is longitudinally folded, yellowish-white and the anther is with long spurs. [7][11][12]

Flowers with yellowish-white corolla, 3.5–4.5 cm long; corolla tube 2 cm long; labellum bilobed, 2–2.5 cm long, 1.5–2 cm wide, yellowish white with dark yellow median band; staminode longitudinally folded, yellowish-white, anther with long spurs; ovary is villous. [7][11][12]

Capsules are ovoid, triangular and dehiscing irregularly. [11][12]

Seeds oblong, and lanceolate, white in colour. [11][12]

Cultivation

C. zedoaria is found in various shady, damp localities on various soils, but prefers well-drained sandy soils, up to 1000 m altitude. [7]

Chemical Constituent

Aqueous extract of C. zedoaria rhizomes was found to contain polysaccharide with moieties (e.g. (1→6)-linked glucopyranosyl, (1→3,4)-linked galactopyranosyl, (1→2)-linked arabinopyranosyl and terminal rhamnopyranosyl). [13]

Ethanol (30%) extract of C. zedoaria rhizomes was found to contain sesquiterpene (e.g. curcumenone). [14]

Acetone (80%) extract of C. zedoaria dried rhizomes was found to contain sesquiterpenes (e.g. curcumenolactone A, B and C, curcumenone, 4S-Dihydrocurcumenone, curcarabrannol A and B, furanodiene,  zederone, germacrone, 13-Hydroxygermacrone, glechomanolide, (+)-germacrone 4,5-epoxide, curdione, neocurdione, dehydrocurdione, curcumenol, isocurcumenol, isoprocurcumenol, alismoxide, 7α-11α-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-9-guaiaen-8-one, aerugidiol, zedoarondiol, isozedoarondiol, zedoalacone B, zedoarolide A and B, (+)-ar-Turmerone, bisacumol, bisacurone, β-eudesmol, β-dictyopterol, zedoarofuran, curzerenone and curcumadione) and curcuminoids [e.g. curcumin and bis(4-hydroxycinnamoyl)methane]. [15]

Methanol extract of C. zedoaria rhizomes was found to contain sesquiterpenes namely zeroarondiol. [16]

Methanol extract of C. zedoaria rhizomes was found to contain sesquiterpenes namely ar-turmerone and β-turmerone. [17][18][19]

Methanol extract of C. zedoaria rhizomes was found to contain sesquiterpenes (e.g. furanodiene, furanodienone, zederone, curzerenone, curzeone, germacrone, 13-hydroxygermacrone, dehydrocurdione, curcumenone, and zedoaronediol, [20]

Methanol extract of C. zedoaria rhizomes was found to contain sesquiterpenoids (e.g. 13-hydroxygermacrone, 1-oxocurzerenone, curzerenone, germacrone, curcolone, procurcumenol, ermanin, curcumin, and a mixture of stigmast-4-en-3,6-dione and stigmasta-4,22-dien-3,6-dione. [21]

Ethanol extract of C. zedoaria dried rhizomes was found to contain curcuminoid (e.g. demethoxycurcumin, curcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin), phenoilic acid (e.g. 3,7-dimethylindan-5-carboxylic acid), and sesquiterpenes (e.g. curcolonol and guaidol). [22]

Ethanol extract of C. zedoaria dried rhizomes was found to contain essential oils (e.g. curzerenone, germacrone, camphor, and curcumenol). [23]

Isopropanol extract of C. zedoaria dried rhizomes was found to contain essential oils (e.g. 1,8-cineol, camphor, isoborneol, borneol, β-elemene, (E)- β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, (E)- β-farnesene, germacrene D, β- selinene, germacrene B, caryophyllene oxide, curzerenone, α- cadinol, furanodiene, germacrone, curdione, curcumenol, α-(E)- atlantone). [23]

Ethyl acetate extract of C. zedoaria dried rhizomes was found to contain essential oils (e.g. camphene, 1,8-cineol, camphor, isoborneol, borneol, α-terpineol, β-elemene, (E)-β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, (E)- β- farnesene, β-chamigrene, germacrene D, β-selinene, germacrene B, caryophyllene oxide, curzerenone, T-cadinol, furanodiene, germacrone, curdione, curcumenol, α-(E)-atlantone). [23]

Dichloromethane extract of C. zedoaria rhizomes was found to contain sesquiterpenes (e.g. curcumenone, curcumanolide A, and curcumanolide B). [24]

Young shoot of C. zedoaria was found to contain sesquiterpenes namely (+)-germacrone-4,5-epoxide. [24]

Dichloromethane extract of C. zedoaria rhizomes was found to contain sesquiterpenes (e.g. zedoarol, 13-hydroxygermacrone, and curzeone). [25]

Dichloromethane extract of C. zedoaria rhizomes was found to contain sesquiterpenes known as curcumenol. [26]

Diethyl ether extract of C. zedoaria rhizomes was found to contain curcuminoids (e.g. diferuloylmethane, feruloyl-p-coumaroylmethane, and di-p-coymaroylmethane). [27]

Pentane extract of C. zedoaria rhizomes was found to contain essential oil (e.g. camphor) and sesquiterpenenes (e.g. furandione and curzerene). [27]

Hexane extract of C. zedoaria dried rhizomes was found to contain sesquiterpenenes (e.g. germacrone, dehydrocurdione, curcumenol, zerumin A, isoprocurcumenol, curcumenone, procurcumenol, zerumbone epoxide, zederone and gweicurculactone). [28]

Essential oil of C. zedoaria rhizomes is composed of epicurzerenone, curzerene, and 5-isopropylidene-3,8-dimethyl-1(5H)-azulenone. [29]

Essential oil of C. zedoaria rhizomes is composed of 1,8 cineole, camphor, camphene, α-pinene, β-pinene, epicurzerenone, and curzerene. [30]

The rhizome of C. zedoaria was found to contain starch (e.g. amylose), and essential oil (e.g. pinene, camphene, cineol, camphor, and borneol). [31]

Ethanol extract of C. zedoaria was found to contain 1,7-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4,6-heptatrien-3-one, procurcumenol, and epiprocurcumenol. [32]

Aqueous acetone extract of C. zedoaria rhizomes was found to contain sesquiterpenes, furanodiene, germacrone, curdione, neocurdione, curcumenol, isocurcumenol, aerugidiol, zedoarondiol, curcumenone and curcumin. [33]

C. zedoaria was found to contain sesquiterpenoid namely dehydrocurdione. [34]

Ethanolic extract of C. zedoaria rhizomes was found to contain 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4,6-heptatrien-3-one, procurcumenol, and epiprocurcumenol. [35]

C. zedoaria rhizome was found to contain curdione. [36]

Plant Part Used

Rhizome, leaves, roots [10][37]

Traditional Use

The rhizome of C. zedoaria is used to treat stomachic, stimulative, carminative, appetizer and diuretic. [31][37][38]

It can be used to treat infectious diseases include for the relief of vaginal discharge, genital infections, throat infections and local skin affections like boils and other forms of abscesses. Besides, it had been recommended for use in treatment of joint affections and bruises following injuries. [31][37][38]

C. zedoaria used traditionally for relieving malarial fevers, vomiting, hiccup, worm infestation, indigestion, flatulence, intestinal infection, nausea, throat inflammations, discharges from genital organs and local skin infections. C. zedoaria also acts as a tonic and help to relief cough. Juice of the leaves can be drink for dropsy. [38]

C. zedoaria rhizome also traditionally used as coughs and common cold remedies and beneficially used to treat respiratory and lung problems. The Indians chew on the rhizome to correct sticky taste in the mouth especially by singers for clearing their throat. [31][38]

Preclinical Data

Pharmacology

Anti-alcohol intoxication activity

Ethanol (30%) extract of C. zedoaria rhizome (1000 mg/kg) was administered orally twice daily to male ICR mice (five weeks old) for duration of seven days before induction of intoxication on day-eight using alcohol (40%). The extract significantly (p < 0.05) reduced drunkenness (41.3% intoxication) and blood alcohol concentration (1.31 mg/mL plasma) at 60 min compared to vehicle-treated control group (82.5% intoxication; 1.88 mg/mL plasma). [14]

Hexane fraction of C. zedoaria rhizome (300 mg/kg) was administered orally twice daily to male ICR mice (five weeks old) for duration of seven days before induction of intoxication on day-eight using alcohol (40%). The extract significantly (p < 0.05) reduce drunkenness (47.5% intoxication) and blood alcohol concentration (1.25 mg/mL plasma) at 30 min compared to vehicle-treated control group (75% intoxication; 1.85 mg/mL plasma). [14]

Curcumenone isolated from hexane fraction of C. zedoaria (10 mg/kg) was administered orally twice daily to male ICR mice (five weeks old) for duration of seven days before induction of intoxication on day-eight using alcohol (40%). The compound significantly (p < 0.05) reduce drunkenness (45% intoxication) and blood alcohol concentration (1.5 mg/mL plasma) while significantly (p < 0.05) increase liver alcohol dehydrogenase level (ADH: 1000 nmol/min/liver 1 g) at 60 min compared to vehicle-treated control group (slip-failing angle: 75% intoxication; blood alcohol concentration: 2.0 mg/mL plasma; ADH: 800 nmol/min/liver 1 g). [14]

Anti-inflammatory activity

ß-turmerone and ar-turmerone isolated from the rhizome of C. zedoaria was found to inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced prostaglandin E 2 production in cultured mouse macrophage cell RAW 264.7 in a dose-dependent manner (IC 50 = 7.3 µM for β-turmerone; IC 50 = 24.0 µM for ar-turmerone). [18]

Sesquiterpenoids, ß-turmerone and ar-turmerone isolated from the rhizome of C. zedoaria showed a potent inhibitory activity of COX-2 in cultured lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated mouse macrophage cell RAW 264.7. [19]

Furanodiene and furanodienone isolated from ethyl acetate (20%) fraction of C. zedoaria rhizome (1.0 µmol) were applied topically to mouse ear for 30 min before 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced edema. The compounds significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited edema with 75 and 53% inhibitory effect, respectively compared to indomethacin (1.4 µmol) (78% inhibitory effect). [20]

Crude methanolic extract of C. zedoria was found to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. 1,7-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4,6-heptatrien-3-one showed the most potent inhibitory activity for NO production in LPS-activated macrophages, while procurcumenol and epiprocurcumenol  showed weak and similar potency. [32]

Dehydrocurdione, a sesquiterpene isolated from C. zedoaria was found to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in Wistar rats with carrageenan-induced paw edema and adjuvant-induced chronic arthritis. Oral administration of dehydrocurdione (120 and 200 mg/kg) was required to reduce chronic adjuvant arthritis and inhibit the carrageenan-induced paw edema, respectively. [34]

A crude methanolic extract of C. zedoaira rhizomes was found to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages that inhibited the TNF-α production. [35]

Curdione isolated from C. zedoaria rhizomes  was found to exhibit inhibitory effect on the production of prostaglandin E2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 = 1.1 µM). [36]

Methanol extract of C. zedoaria showed potent inhibition of COX-2 activity (>80% inhibition at the test concentration of 10 µg/ml). [39]

Analgesic activity

Curcumenol isolated from dichloromethane fraction of C. zedoaria rhizome (1-10 mg/kg) administered intraperitoneally to Swiss mice (25–35 g) 30 min before induction of abdominal constriction using acetic-acid showed analgesic effect with 50% inhibition of nociceptive response (ID50) of 22 µmol/kg compared to diclofenac (ID50 = 38 µmol/kg). [26]

Curcumenol isolated from dichloromethane fraction of C. zedoaria rhizome (3–15 mg/kg) administered intraperitoneally to Swiss mice (25–35 g) 60 min before induction of pain using formalin showed analgesic effect (42.2% pain inhibition) with ID50= > 64 µmol/kg at zero to five min formalin-induced pain compared to diclofenac (ID50 > 94 µmol/kg). The extract also showed analgesic effect at 15 – 30 min formalin-induced pain (ID50 = 29 µmol/kg) compared to diclofenac (ID50 = 34.5 µmol/kg). [26]

Curcumenol isolated from dichloromethane fraction of C. zedoaria rhizome (1–10 mg/kg) administered intraperitoneally to Swiss mice (25–35 g) one hr before capsaicin induced-pain showed analgesic effect with ID50 = 12 µmol/kg compared to diclofenac (ID50 = 47 µmol/kg). [26]

Hepatoprotective activity

Aqueous acetone extract of C. zedoaria rhizome (100 mg/kg) was administered orally to male ddY mice (25–27 g) one hr before liver injury induction using D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide. The blood samples were collected 10 hr after D-GaIN injection. The extract inhibited the increase of serum glutamic-oxaloacetate transaminase (s-GOT) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (s-GPT). The extract showed significant (p < 0.01) reduction in serum (s-GOT: 2812.5 Karmen Unit) and (s-GPT: 2187.5 Karmen Unit) compared to untreated control (s-GOT: 8125 Karmen Unit; s-GPT: 6718.75 Karmen Unit). [33]

The aqueous extract of C. zedoaria rhizome was found to inhibit the hepatic myofibroblast cells through an intracellular mechanism involving early COX-2-dependent release of prostaglandin E2 and cAMP, and delayed COX-2 induction. From these two results it would be worth looking into the use of C. zedoaria extracts in the treatment of chronic liver disease. [40]

Antipyretic activity

Ethanol (80%) extract of C. zedoaria rhizome (750 mg/kg) was administered orally as a single dose to Young Long-Evan rats (172–210 g) after 18 hr induction of pyrexia using Brewer’s yeast. The extract (750 mg/kg) showed significant (p < 0.001) antipyretic effect by measuring the rectal temperature at two hr (94.24 ± 0.44⁰F) and three hr (92.50 ± 0.39⁰F) similar as paracetamol (10 mg/kg) (2 hr: 96.38 ± 0.56⁰F; 3 hr: 91.98 ± 0.67⁰F) compared to untreated control group (distilled water) (2 hr: 96.38 ± 0.56⁰F; 3 hr: 95.70 ± 0.66⁰F). [41]

Antiallergic activity

Aqueous acetone (80%) extract of C. zedoaria rhizome (400 mg/kg) was administered orally as a single dose to male ddY mice (25–30 g) after 47 hr induction of ear passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) using monoclonal anti-dinitrophenol (anti-DNP IgE) for duration of one hr. The extract significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited ear PCA reaction (34.0%) compared to anti-DNP IgE treated control with no inhibition. [42]

Antihyperlipidemic activity

Ethanol (50%) extract of C. zedoaria dried powder rhizome (200 and 400 mg/kg) was administered orally to adult male rats (150–220 g) for duration of 12 days before induction of hyperlipidemia using poloxamer. The extract significantly (p < 0.001) reduced total cholesterol level (200 mg/kg: 238.33 ± 5.98 mg/dL; 400 mg/kg:  231.0 ± 5.51 mg/dL) compared to poloxamer-treated control group (1 g/kg) (287.50 ± 12.61 mg/dL). [43]

Antiangiogenesis activity

Essential oil of C. zedoaria rhizome (100 and 200 mg/kg) was administered orally to female C57BL/6 mice (six week old) for duration of 28 days after induction of melanoma using melanoma cell lines (B16BL6). The extract significantly (p < 0.05) reduces the weight of melanoma (2.48 ± 0.50 and 2.92 ± 0.66 g, respectively) and microvessel density (MVD: 20 and 30, respectively) compared to control (weight of melanoma: 4.34 ± 0.64 g; MVD: 48). [44]

Essential oil of C. zedoaria rhizome (100 and 200 mg/kg) showed anti-angiogenic activity with inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression (225 and 175 ng/L, respectively) in mouse embryo fibroblast cell line (NIH3T3) compared to corn oil-treated control group (275 ng/L) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. [45]

Vascular-relaxation activity

Aqueous acetone (80%) extract of C. zedoaria rhizome (6.25–50.0 µg/mL) inhibited contraction of isolated rat thoracic aorta strips induced by high potassium (K+) dose-dependently (15.8 ± 3.4 – 98.8 ± 6.5%) with inhibition concentration at 50% (IC50) of 18 µg/mL compared to nifedipine (28.4 ± 4.2 – 84.0 ± 3.7%; IC50 = 6.4 nM). [46]

Cytotoxic activity

Methanol extract of C. zedoaria rhizome showed cytotoxicity activity on nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line (KB) (IC50 of 14.4 ± 0.7 µg/mL) and human cervical carcinoma (Ca Ski) cell line (IC50 = 14.2 ± 1.5 µg/mL) compared to doxorubicin (IC50 against KB: 0.27 ± 0.01 µg/mL; Ca Ski: 0.18 ± 0.06 µg/mL) using neutral red cytotoxicity assay. [47]

Hexane fraction of C. zedoaria rhizome showed cytotoxicity activity on Ca Ski (IC50 = 16.4 ± 0.9 µg/mL) and breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) (IC50 = 18.9 ± 0.7 µg/mL) compared to doxorubicin (Ca Ski: 0.18 ± 0.06 µg/mL; MCF-7: 0.0.5 ± 0.01 µg/mL) using neutral red cytotoxicity assay. [47]

Curzerenone and alismol isolated from hexane fraction of C. zedoaria rhizome showed cytotoxicity activity on Ca Ski (IC50 = 8.9 ± 0.7 and 8.70 ± 1.1 µg/mL, respectively) compared to doxorubicin (IC50 = 0.18 ± 0.06 µg/mL) using neutral red cytotoxicity assay.  Compound alismol also showed cytotoxicity activity on MCF-7 (IC50 = 10.0 ± 0.7 µg/mL) compared to doxorubicin (IC50= 0.05 ± 0.01 µg/mL) using neutral red cytotoxicity assay. [47]

Curcumenol and curcumenone isolated from hexane extract of C. zedoaria rhizome showed cytotoxicity activity on MCF-7 (IC50=9.3 ± 0.3 µg/mL and 8.3 ± 1.0 µg/mL, respectively) compared to doxorubicin (IC50 = 0.1 ± 0.0 µg/mL) using 3-[4, 5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. [48]

Antiproliferative activity

Aqueous extract of C. zedoaria rhizome (5 and 10 µg/mL) significantly (p < 0.01) inhibit serum-induced human hepatic myofibroblast (hMF) cell proliferation (5 µg/mL: 32% and 10 µg/mL: 76%, respectively) over the time course (7-days incubation) compared to control group using MTT assay. [49]

The extract (10 µg/mL) also inhibit serum-induced hMF cell proliferation with IC50 of 8.5 µg/mL against pertussin toxin-treated cells compared to vehicle-treated cells using [3]-thymidine incorporation assay. [49]

Aqueous extract of C. zedoaria rhizome (10 µg/mL) significantly (p < 0.05) inhibit platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB)-induced hMF cell proliferation (6.5 ± 0.54 cells/well x 104) after 24 hours incubation compared to control group (22.3 ± 4.65 cells/well x 104) using MTT assay. [50]

The extract (5-10 µg/mL) also significantly (p < 0.05) inhibit PDGF-BB-induced hMF cell proliferation (40.2 ± 6.8 – 47.2 ± 2.3% bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation) after 24 hours incubation compared to control group using BrdU incorporation assay. [50]

Antimetastatic activity

Aqueous extract of C. zedoaria rhizome (250 and 500 mg/kg) was administered  intraperitoneally to male C57BL/6 mice (eight weeks old) two weeks before inoculation of B16 mouse melanoma cells line (1.3 x 10cells/mouse) for duration of six weeks. The extract  significantly (p < 0.05) reduce the weight of lung (0.177 g and 0.175 g, respectively) and number of surface nodules (150 and 154 of lung nodules, respectively) after 21 days compared to B16 cells-alone treated group (weight of lung: 0.215 g; number of surface nodules: 352 lung nodules). [51]

Antimicrobial activity

Petroleum ether of C. zedoaria tuber (2.5–0.01 mg/mL) inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis with inhibition zone (IZ) of 15 mm and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.02 mg/mL, Microsoccus luteus (IZ: 13 mm, MIC: 0.01 mg/mL), Proteus mirabilis (9 mm, MIC: 0.04 mg/mL), Klebsiella pneumonia (8 mm, MIC: 0.02 mg/mL) compared to gentamycin (10 µg) (B. subtilis: 27 mm, M. luteus: 20 mm, P. mirabilis: 21 mm, K. pneumonia: 18 mm) and tetracycline (B. subtilis: 21 mm, M. luteus: 29 mm, P. mirabilis: 17 mm, K. pneumonia: 30 mm) using agar-well diffusion assay. [52]

Petroleum ether of C. zedoaria tuber inhibited the growth of C. albicans with inhibition zone of 10 mm and MIC of 0.04 mg/mL,Aspergillus niger (8 mm, MIC: 0.15 mg/mL) while acetone extract inhibited C. albican (8 mm, MIC: 0.01 mg/mL), A. niger (8 mm, MIC: 0.01 mg/mL) compared to clotrimazole (8 mm) using agar-well diffusion assay. [52]

Essential oils (5 mL) in methanol (100 mL) of C. zedoaria rhizome inhibited the growth of Mycobacterium phlei (MIC: 1.2 mg/mL) with inhibition zone of 18 mm compared to oxacilin (MIC: 0.0001 mg/mL, inhibition zone: 20 mm). The extracts also inhibited the growth of S. aureus with inhibition zone of 12 mm compared to kanamycin (22 mm) using disc diffusion assay. [53]

Ethanol extract of C. zedoaria rhizome inhibited C. albicans and C. dubliniensis with MIC of 2.6 ± 0.9 mg/mL, C. glabrata (MIC: 6.25 ± 0 mg/mL), C. krusei (MIC: 8.33 ± 3.6 mg/mL), C. tropicalis ATCC 750 and ATCC 13803 (MIC: 2.60 ± 0.9 mg/mL) and C. tropicalis ATCC 66029 (MIC: 1.56 ± 0 mg/mL). Meanwhile, the growth of fungal was inhibited with minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) at > 25 mg/mL against C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. tropicalis ATCC 750 and ATCC 13803 whileC. dubliniensis and C. tropicalis ATCC 66029 were inhibited at MFC of 25 ± 0 mg/mL compared to chlorhexidine using broth microdilution assay. [54]

The essential oil of C. zedoaria with high content of epicurzernone and curdione, proved to be most effective against Vibrio parahaemolyticus and least sensitive to E. coli. [55]

Ethanolic extract of eight medicinal plants including C. zedoaria was tested for their antibacterial activity against four gram positive strains (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and, Streptococcus pneumoniae) and six gram negative strains (Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi para A, Salmonella typhi para B, and Shigella dysenteriae). Results obtained show that C. zedoaria exhibit a potent antibacterial activity. [56]

Hot ethanol extract of C. zedoaria was fund to exhibit antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum, Aspergillus niger, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Epidermophyton floccosum at a concentration less than 10 mug/ml, A. fumigatus, Penicillium purpurogenum, Trignoposis variabilis, Microsporum gypseum, Sclerotium rolifsii, Geotricular candiade, Fusarium oxysporum and Helminthosporium oryzale at a concentration less than 25mug/ml, and Candida krusei and T. mentagrophytes at a concentration less than 50 mug/ml. [57]

C. zedoaria exhibits significant antifungal activity against a wide variety of human pathogenic fungi including those resistant to common antifungal amphotericin B and ketoconazole. [58]

Antiarthritic activity

Rats treated with petroleum ether and chloroform extracts of C. zedoaria roots showed significant recovery in behaviour and radiological changes from Freund’s Complete Adjuvant-induced monoarthritis in rats. Evidence that these extract could be useful in providing relief from arthritic conditions. [59]

Uterine muscular excitatory activity

Aqueous extract of C. zedoaria was seen to significantly increase the spike area, duration and number of bursts of action potentials of rat uterine smooth muscle in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was decreased by atropine and phentolamine but not verapamil, diphenhydramine and indomethacin. Thus the excitatory effect of aqueous extract of C. zedoaria on mice uterine muscles is associated with M-receptor and α-receptor. [60]

Anticancer activity

The essential oil extracted from C. zedoaria showed the capability of inhibiting growth of human promyelocytic leukaemia HL-60 cells via apoptosis. [55]

The polysaccharide fraction (CZ1-III) of C. zedoaria was found to have the ability to inhibit the growth of solid tumour (sarcoma 180 cells) in a dose dependent manner. It did not show any mutagenicity and clastogenic activity. This shows that CZ1-III was able to decrease tumour size and prevent chromosomal mutation in mice. [61]

Curcuminoids isolated from methanolic and aqueous extract of C. zedoaria rhizomeswas found to play a pivotal role in the antimutagenic activity against mutagens, either 2-amino-3-methylimidazo (4,5-f) quinoline (IQ) or 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4-NQO), in dosages of 1-50 µg/plate that was assayed by using Salmonella typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100, and TA102 strains. [62]

Toxicity

Embryotoxicity activity

Essential oil of C. zedoaria rhizome (40 µg/mL) was treated on Sprague Dawley’s embryos (gestation day (GD) of 9.5) for duration of 48 hours. The extract showed significant (p < 0.01) developmental toxicity with reduction of yolk sac diameter (3.10 ± 0.47 mm), crown-rump length (2.53 ± 0.37 mm) and head length (1.33 ± 0.22 mm) while decrease the somite number (9.33 ± 1.51) and total morphological score (17.63 ± 2.07) compared to N,N-dimethylformamide-treated control (yolk sac diameter: 5.22 ± 0.49 mm, crown-rump length: 3.89 ± 0.49 mm, head length: 2.01 ± 0.16 mm, somite number: 22.25 ± 1.83, total morphological score: 34.88 ± 1.25) using ex-vivo whole-embryo culture assay. [45]

Essential oil (200 mg/kg) of C. zedoaria rhizome administered orally to pregnant Sprague Dawley rats (age 10-12 weeks) from GD7 to GD17 significantly (p < 0.01) decrease number of live fetuses (7.6 ± 1.1), placental weight (0.305 ± 0.045 g), fetal weight (0.744 ± 0.072 g), crown-rump length (1.773 ± 0.063 cm) and head length (0.937  ± 0.059 cm) compared to corn oil-treated control group (number of live fetuses: 11.4 ± 1.5, placental weight: 0.379 ± 0.067 g, fetal weight: 0.955 ± 0.074 g, crown-rump length: 1.979 ± 0.086 cm, head length:1.048 ± 0.050 cm). [45]

Genotoxicity activity

Hydroalcoholic (50%) extract of C. zedoaria rhizome (39.06, 78.125 and 156.25 µg/mL) was treated on human lymphocytes for duration of four hours. The extract showed genotoxic activities with chromosomal aberrations (2.0, 2.5 and 6.5%, respectively) compared to Mitomycin C (0.3 µg/mL) (16.0% of chromosomal aberrations) using chromosomal aberration test. [63]

Clinical Data

No documentation.

Dosage

No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing

527

 

Figure 1: the line drawing of C. zedoaria [7].

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