Hyssopus officinalis L.

Last updated: 24 May 2016

Scientific Name

Hyssopus officinalis L.

Synonyms

Hyssopus alopecuroides Fisch. ex Benth., Hyssopus altissimus Mill., Hyssopus angustifolius M.Bieb., Hyssopus beugesiacus Jord. & Fourr., Hyssopus caucasicus Spreng. ex Steud., Hyssopus decumbens Jord. & Fourr., Hyssopus fischeri Steud., Hyssopus hirsutus Hill, Hyssopus judaeorum Sennen, Hyssopus myrtifolius Desf., Hyssopus orientalis Adam ex Willd., Hyssopus passionis Sennen & Elias, Hyssopus polycladus Jord. & Fourr., Hyssopus pubescens Jord. & Fourr., Hyssopus recticaulis Jord. & Fourr., Hyssopus ruber Mill., Hyssopus schleicheri G.Don ex Loudon, Hyssopus torresii Sennen, Hyssopus vulgaris Bubani, Thymus hyssopus E.H.L.Krause, Hyssopus officinalis var. angustifolius (M.Bieb.) Benth., Hyssopus officinalis subsp. borealis Domin, Hyssopus officinalis var. decumbens (Jord. & Fourr.) Briq., Hyssopus officinalis var. decussata Pers., Hyssopus officinalis var. latifolius Fisch. ex Benth., Hyssopus officinalis subsp. officinalis, Hyssopus officinalis f. officinalis [1]

Vernacular Name

English Hyssop [2][3]
China Shen xiang cao [2]
India Ju-bha, jupha, tangu, zanjibil, zoofa, zufa, zufa khusk, zufah, zufah-i-khushk, zufah-khushk, zufah khushk [2]
France Hysope [3].

Geographical Distributions

Hyssopus officinalis is originated from Mediterranean. This plant is now cultivated in Southern Europe throughout the United States, Britain and Canada. [3]

Botanical Description

H. officinalisis a member of the Lamiaceaefamily [3][1]. The perennial H. officinalis plant can grow to be about 60 cm tall. [3][4]

The leaves in pairs without petioles and have aromatic odour. [4]

The flowers are bluish-purple, growing chiefly on one side of short vertillicate spikes. [4]

Cultivation

No documentation.

Chemical Constituent

H. officinalis is reported to containα-and-β-pinenne; α-terpene; camphene; flavonoids; glucosides; isopinocamphone; marubin; pinocamphone; polysaccharides; rosmarinic acid; tannin.[3][5]

Plant Part Used

Leaves and flowering tops. [3][4]

Traditional Use

H. officinalis is traditionally used as antibacterial, antiviral, carminative, diaphoretic, expectorant, emmenagogue antispasmodic. [3]

Preclinical Data

Pharmacology

Muscle Relaxant

The essential oil of H. officinalis that been tested in rabbit and guinea pig intestines inhibited induced contractions, thereby exhibiting muscle relaxant effects. Chemical compounds from this oil were also applied separately and isopinocamphone demonstrated similar relaxant effects. [6]

Antimicrobial

The essential oil of a subspecies of H. officinalis was used against several strains of gram +/- bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The results indicated that this subspecies had antimicrobial activity and this action was due to its limonene content. [5]

Toxicity

No documentation.

Clinical Data

Clinical findings

No documentation.

Precautions

Those allergic to the Lamiaceae family plant should avoid contact with H. officinalis. [7]

Side effects

No documentation.

Dosage

No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing

No documentation.

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Hyssopus officinalis L. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Apr 18; cited 2016 May 5]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-102273.
  2. Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of plant names: common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Volume III E-L. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press LLC, 1999; p. 547.
  3. Kuhn MA, Winston D. Herbal therapy and supplements: A scientific and traditional approach. USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000: p.198.
  4. Hutchens AR. Indian herbalogy of North America. Boston, Massachusetts: Shambala Publication, 1969; p161.
  5. Mazzanti G, Battinelli L, Salvatore G. Antimicrobial properties of the linalol‐rich essential oil of Hyssopus officinalis L. var decumbens (Lamiaceae). Flavour Frag J. 1998;13(5):289-294.
  6. Lu M, Battinelli L, Daniele C, et al. Muscle relaxing activity of Hyssopus officinalis essential oil on isolated intestinal preparations. Planta Med. 2002;68(3):213-216.
  7. Benito M, Jorro G, Morales C, et al. Labiatae allergy: Systemic reactions due to ingestion of oregano and thyme. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1996:76(5);416-418.