Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre

Last updated: 07 Mar 2017

Scientific Name

Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre

Synonyms

Cajum pinnatum (L.) Kuntze, Cytisus pinnatus L., Dalbergia arborea Willd., Derris indica (Lam.) Benn., Galedupa pinnata (L.) Taub., Galedupa pungum J.G.Gmel., Millettia novo-guineensis Kaneh. & Hatus., Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi, Pongamia glabra Vent., Pongamia glabra var. xerocarpa (Hassk.) Prain, Pongamia mitis (L.) Kurz, Pongamia mitis var. xerocarpa (Hassk.) Merr., Pongamia pinnata var. xerocarpa (Hassk.) Alston, Pongamia xerocarpa Hassk., Pterocarpus flavus Lour., Robinia mitis L. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Biangsu, jador, kachang kayu laut, malapari, mempari, pari pari [2], kacang kayu laut, biansu [3]
English Karum tree, mullikulam tree, pongam oil tree, pongamia, poonga oil tree, pungum seed, quick poison, seashore mempari, thinwin [2], Indian beech, pongam, pongame oil tree [3]
China Shui liu dou [2]
India Aciruntam, aciruttam, agirunanandam, akirantam, akirantamaram, akirantanam, akirunanantam, akirunantam, aktemakat, alam, alamarikam, alamarikamaram, alati, angaravalli, badhaphala, batta, batti, boichune, canaga, chitaveelya, chirabilva, ciravilva, cittakikam, dahur-karanja, dhana, gaanuga, gal-karanda, ganuga, garangi, gataran (nat-afal), gaura, ghanerakaranji, ghanerakaranj, ghratakaranja, ghritaparnaka, ghrtapura, gucchapuspaka, guchhapushpaka, hastija, hedem-araung, honga, hongay, honge, honge beeja, honge mara, hongemara, hongey, huligali, huligili, huligilu, huligiri, hungay, ilanci, ilancu, ilanji, intirani, intiranikam, intiranikamaram, kaadepathige, kaagu, kaangu, kaanuga chettu, kaggera, kagu, kaidarya, kakaghni, kakananam, kalimara, kamu, kanaga, kancaccam, kancatam, kandga, kanga, kaniga, kanja, kanjanam, kanji, kannaji, kanniga, kanoogoo, kanuga, kanuga-chettu, kanugacettu, kanugu, karabhandika, karach, karamji, karancakam, karancam, karancamam, karancamamaram, karanda, karanga, karani, karanj, karanj beej, karanj beeja, karanj chal, karanj chhal, karanj tel, karanja, karanjah, karanjaka, karanjbeej, karanjchaal, karanjh, karanji, karanjwa, karanjwah, karany, karcha, karchaw, karjani, karinje, karnaga, karuinj, karunga, karunja, kaunga, keedamaar, kentikam, kentitamaram, kerong, khaiulmalisa, kidamar, kiramal, kolliyam, kolliyamaram, korangi, koranja, koranjo, korengi, koringe, korinta, korngu, kraanuga, kranuga, krovi, kucco, kuppucam, kurundi, magul-karanda, mahota, mancaripputpam, matry, minnari, naguttam, nakatamalam, naktahva, naktamala, naktamalah, naktamalaka, nakuttam, nanadam, nanantam, nanantamaram, nankaimaram, nantam, nantamalam, nattaka, nattakamaram, nattam, nattamalakimaram, nattamalam, nattamaram, nattmalakam, nirppungu, nirppunkan, nirppunku, oongu, palpunku, pamahuo, papar, paphari, papra, pirakacakamatu, pirakarancam, pirakari, pong, ponga, pongai, pongam, pongan, pongu, ponka, ponnam, ponnamu, ponnu, poona, poonam, porimalar, prakirya, punga, punga maram, pungai, pungam, pungam-maram, pungamaram, pungammaram, pungei, pungon, pungu, punha maram, punka, punkaimaram, punkam, punkan, punku, punkumaram, punnu, punti, puntikarancakam, punu, putika, putikaranja, puti[arna, pitipatraka, puvanti, rakta honne, rochana, sadgrantha, shadagrantha, shamagashta, snigdhapatra, soma valka, sukhchain, sukchein, tamala, tamala-vrikshaha, tamalavrikshaha, tamgkua, tapasvi, tattaippunku, tavanatcavalli, theep, tiripilan, totakatti, ucaku, udakirya, udakiryah, ulokatitam, unga, ungha, ungin tholi, ungin tholi pacha, ungin veru, ungu unju, unnu, utaku, vacaputpam, vahni, varuni, viaghranakamu, vishari, vrittaparna, vyaghra-ekamru, vyaaghranakamu, yayariyam [2]
Nepal Sadum [2]
Tibetan Ma-nu shu-zur, jam bras, ka ra ndza, jam-bras, sve ta ka ra nja [2]
Singapore Seashore mempari [3]
Borneo Biansu [2]
Indonesia Tuba jek [2], bangkong, ki Pahang laut, kranji [3]
Thailand Khayi, yi-nam [2][3]
Laos (do:k) ko:m ko:y [2][3]
Philippines Balikbalik, balok, bani [2][3]
Vietnam D[aa]y lim, d[aa]y m[aas]u, kh[oor] s[aa]m hoa [2][3]
Japan Kuro-yona, ohbaki, okaha [2]
France Arbre de pongolote [3]
Papua New Guinea Poklen, vailail [2].

Geographical Distributions

Pongamia pinnata probably originated from India and occurs naturally or naturalised from Pakistan, India and Sri Lanka throughout Southeast Asia to north-eastern Australia, Fiji and Japan. It has been introduced in Egypt and the United States (Florida, Hawaii). [3]

Botanical Description

P. pinnata is a member of Fabaceae family. [4] It is an evergreen or briefly deciduous, hairless shrub or tree with spreading branches. It is 15-25 m tall and with the trunk measuring up to 80 cm in diameter. [3]

The grey bark is smooth or faintly vertically fissured. The branch lets are with pale stipule scars. [3]

The leaves are imparipinnate, pinkish-red when young, glossy dark green above and dull green with prominent veins beneath when mature. There are 5-9 leaflets which are ovate, elliptical or oblong, measuring 5-25 cm x 2.5-15 cm, obtuse-acuminate at the apex and rounded to wedge-shaped at the base. [3]

The inflorescence is raceme-like, axillary, measures 6-27 cm long and bears pairs of strong fragrant flowers. The sepal is bell-shaped, measures 4-5 mm long, truncate and finely pubescent. The petal is white to pink, purple inside and brownish veined outside. The standard is rounded obovate, measures 1-2 cm long, with basal auricles, often with green central blotch and with thin silky hairy. The wings are oblong, oblique and slightly adherent to obtuse keel. There are 10 monadelphous stamens, vexillary one free at the base and joined to the tube in the middle. [3]

The pod is short-stalked, oblique-oblongoid to ellipsoid, flat, measuring 5-8 cm x 2-3.5 cm x 1-1.5 cm, smooth, thick-leathery to subwoody, beaked, indehiscent and with 1-2-seeded. [3]

The seed is compressed ovoid, measuring 1.5-2.5 cm x 1.2-2 cm x 0.8 cm and with a brittle coat. [3]

Cultivation

In its natural range, P. pinnata tolerates a wide temperature range. Mature trees withstand light frost and tolerate temperatures of over 50°C. Its altitudinal range is from 0-1200 m. It is fairly tolerant of shade, at least when young. The annual rainfall required is 500-2500 mm, with a dry season of 2-6 months. It occurs naturally in the lowland forest on limestone and rocky coral outcrops on the coast, along the edges of mangrove forest and along tidal streams and rivers. The best growth is found on deep sandy loams, but it will also grow on sandy soils and heavy swelling clay soils. It is very tolerant of saline conditions and tolerant of alkalinity. [3]

Chemical Constituent

The seed of P. pinnata was found to contain glabrin; furanoflavones (e.g. karanjin, pongapin, kanjone, pongagalabrone, diketone, pongamol, and pinnatin); flanone derivatives (e.g. pongol); flavanoids (e.g. glabrachalcone isopongachromene); and essential oils. [5]

Seed oil of P. pinnata was found to contain furanoflavones (e.g. karanjin, pongamol, pongapin, and kanjone); flavanoids (e.g. glabrachalcone); and fatty acids (e.g. oleic, linoleic, myristic, palmitic, stearic, linolic, lignoceric, dihydroxysteraric, eicosenoic, arachidic, and behenic acids). [5]

The bark of P. pinnata was found to contain phenylpropanoids (e.g. pongapinone A and B). [6]

The seed of P. pinnata was found to contain ß-sitosteryl acetate, galactoside, stigma sterol, galactoside, sucrose, and fatty acids (e.g. oleic, stearic, palmitic, hirogenic, and octadecatrienoic acids) [7], pongarotene and karanjin [8]

The fruit of P. pinnata was found to contain furaflavanoids (e.g. pongapinnol A-D, coumestan, and pongacoumestan) [9], furaflavanoid glucosides (e.g. pongamosides A-C); flavanol glucoside (e.g. pongamoside D) [10].

The root bark of P. pinnata was found to contain biflavonyloxymethane, karanjabiflavone, furanoflavone, and pongapin. [11]

The ethanol extract (50%) of stem bark of P. pinnata was found to contain flavanoids (e.g. pongaflavone, karanjin, pongapin, pongachromene, 3,7-dimethoxy-3’,  4'-methylenedioxyflavone, millettocalyxin C, and 3,3',4', 7-tetramethoxyflavone) [12], flavanoids (e.g. pongamones A-E) [13], tunicatachalcone, and pongaflavanol [14].

Aqueous methanol extract of P. pinnata leaves was found to contain isoflavanoid diglycosides (e.g. 4'-O-methyl-genistein 7-O-β-D-rutinoside and 2',5'-dimethoxy-genistein 7-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1"'-->6")-O-β-D-glucopyranoside); rotenoid (e.g. 12a-hydroxy-α-toxicarol); vecinin-2; kaempferol 3-O-β-D-rutinoside; rutin; vitexin; isoquercitrin; kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside; 11,12a-dihydroxy-munduserone; kaempferol; and quercetin. [15]

Methanol extracts of P. pinnata indicated the presence of protocatechuic, ellagic, ferulic, gallic, gentisic, 4-hydroxybenzoic and 4-hydroxycinnamic acids in bark (1.50-6.70 mg/100 g DW); sorbic, ferulic, gallic, salicylic and p-coumaric acids in leaves (1.18-4.71 mg/100 g DW); vanillic, gallic and tannic acids in seeds (0.52-0.65 mg/100 g DW). [16]

Plant Part Used

Bark, seeds, leaves and flowers. [3][5][17]

Traditional Use

The extracts from the leaves, bark and seeds are applied locally in cases of rheumatism. [3] The seed has anti-inflammatory properties and used to treat various skin conditions. The seed oil in particular has been prescribed in the treatment of dermatitis, eczema, scabies, sores and herpes. [5] The leaves of P. pinnata are considered carminative and antidiarrhoeal and traditionally used in the treatment of flatulence, diarrhoea and dysentery. [17] It is also applied on the chest to treat pneumonia, cold and chest pains, and applied locally for rheumatic disease and muscular atrophy. [17]

The seed oil is used as a laxative for the expulsion of intestinal parasites and as an ingredient for hair oil given to treat alopecia. [17] The fruit had been advocated for used in the treatment of urinary and vaginal discharges. [17] The root is used as a remedy for foul ulcers. [17] The leaves together with the seeds are used to treat leprotic and the rind of the pod and the seed together is given to patients with whooping cough and bronchitis. [17]

Preclinical Data

Pharmacology

Antidiarrhoeal activity

The study using crude decoction of dried leaves of P. pinanata was done to evaluate its antimicrobial and its effects on the production and action of enterotoxins and adherence and invasion of enteropathogens to epithelial cells. The results showed that it has no antibacterial, antigiardial and antiviral activities but it was able to reduce the production of cholera toxin and bacterial invasion in epithelial cells. This shows that the crude decoction has selective antidiarrhoeal action especially against those causing bloody diarrhoea including Vibrio cholera, Escherichia coli, and Shigella flexneri. [18]

Antimicrobial activity

Methanol extract of P. pinnata bark tested against a set of bacterial and fungal strains revealed the strongest antimicrobial activity with the largest inhibition zone and lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). [16]

Crude aqueous extract of P. pinnata seed showed antiviral activity by completely inhibit the growth of HSV-1 and HSV- 2 of Vero cells at concentration 1 mg/mL (w/v) and 20 mg/mL (w/v), respectively, evidenced by the complete absence of cytopathic effect. [19]

The seed oil of P. pinnata was tested against 14 strains of pathogenic bacteria and it was observed that 57.14% of the pathogens were inhibited at the dose of 500 µL/mL, 28.57% at 250 µL/mL, and 14.28% at 125 µL/mL using tube dilution technique. The action was basically bactericidal via inhibition of cell-membrane synthesis of the bacteria. [20]

P. pinnata was amongst 47 species of plants tested for their antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum. The in vitro inhibition (%) of bark, leaf and seeds extract against chloroquine susceptible strain of P. falciparum (3D7) were recorded. The result showed that the barks and leaves extracts were considered active because they produced more than 80% inhibitions at 100 µg/ml and more than 50% at 50 µg/mL. It showed great potential for further studies in this line. [21]

Cycloart–23-ene–3β, 25-diol (called as B2) isolated from stem bark of P. pinnata exhibited broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against bacteria and strong activity against yeast type of fungi. [22]

Anti-lice activity

The petroleum ether extract of the leaves of P. pinnata proved to be effective pediculocide and ovicide against the head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) with values of inhibition ranging between 50.3% and 100%. It could provide an alternative to synthetic anti-lice agents. [23]

Anti-inflammatory activity

Ethanol extract of the P. pinnata seeds exhibited anti-inflammatory activity especially against bradykinin and PGE-1 induced inflammation. This effect appeared to be a modulation of eicosanoid-events in inflammation. The fractions being the most effective are petroleum ether and chloroform. The extracts (ethanol, and sequential petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, and acetone) of the roots and the 70% ethanol extract of the leaves also exhibited anti-inflammatory activity. These extracts did not show any ulcerogenic activity. [24][25][26]

Ethanol extract (70%) of P. pinnata leaves (PLE) was found to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in acute, subacute and chronic models of inflammation in rats. Per os (p.o.) administration of PLE (300, 1000 mg/kg) exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in acute (carrageenin, histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and prostaglandin E2-induced hind paw edema), subcute (kaolin-carrageenin and formaldehyde-induced hind paw edema) and chronic (cotton pellet granuloma) models of inflammation. [27]

Antiulcerogenic activity

Various extracts from the root bark and seeds of P. pinnata had proven to be effective in protecting the stomach lining against ulcerogenic assaults. In the case of the root extracts, in one study the petroleum ether extracts proved to be the most effective and it acts by decreasing the acid-pepsin secretion and augmenting mucin secretion [26]. In other studies it was found that the methanol extracts of P. pinnata roots could inhibit ulcer formation in those induced by acetic acid and aspirin but not those by ethanol indicating that this effect is due to its ability to augment the mucosal defensive factors and lipid peroxidation and not the offensive acid-pepsin secretion [28].

The methanol extract of P. pinnata seed was found to protect gastric mucosa against the assault by 2h cold resistant stress in rats. This was found to be due to its ability to decrease acid output and increase mucin secretion and mucosal glycoprotein while decreasing gastric mucosal shedding without any effects on cell proliferation [29]. Subsequently it was identified that karanjin was one of the flavonoids responsible for this effect [30]

Both acute as well as chronic administration of P. pinnata ethanolic leaves extract (100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o.) did not produce any gastric lesion in rats [26]. On other experiment, acetic ether extract of P. pinnata root was significantly inhibit the gastric mucosa damage induced by absolute alcohol in rats and reserpine in mice [31].

Antinocicptive activity

The 70% ethanol extract of P. pinnata leaves (100, 300, 1000 mg/kg) exhibited significant (p < 0.05) antinociceptive activity when administered orally to hotplate, tail flick (central) and acetic acid writhing (peripheral)-induced nociceptive effect in Swiss mice compared to normal saline (10 mL/kg) as a control while for Randall-Selitto (peripheral)-induced nociceptive effect in Wistar rats, the extract was compared with 1 mL/kg normal saline. These proved that the extracts acted both centrally and peripherallyin alleviating the pain response. It also was found to inhibit fever induced by brewer’s yeast. [32]

Nephroprotective activity

The ethanol extract of the flowers of P. pinnata was able to protect rat kidneys from damage induced by cisplatin and gentamicin. There were evidences that the protection against tubular necrosis was done to its antioxidant activity. [33]

Cytotoxic activity

19 compounds were identified from petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts of stem bark of P. pinnata using activity-guided fractionation methods to study the cytotoxic activities against Hepa 1c1c7 mouse hepatoma cells. [34]

Two out of the seven compounds isolated through bioassay-guided fractionation of P. pinnata were found significantly overcame tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-resistance in human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cell lines. [35]

Antioxidant activity

Maximum extraction yield of antioxidant components from bark (16.31%) leaves (11.42%) and seeds (21.51%) of P. pinnata was obtained using aqueous methanol (20:80). Of the extracts tested, the bark extract, obtained with aqueous methanol, exhibited greater levels of total phenolics [6.94 g GAE/100 g dry weight (DW)], total flavonoids (3.44 g CE/100 g DW), inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (69.23%) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC(50) value, 3.21 μg/mL), followed by leaves and seeds extracts. [16]

Cycloart–23-ene–3β, 25-diol (called as B2) isolated from stem bark of P. pinnata showed dose dependent antioxidant activity. B2 showed more DPPH radical scavenging, reducing power, superoxide scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, metal chelating scavenging, hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity than β–tocopherol. [22]

Ethanolic extract of P. pinnata leaves (PPEt) was found to exhibit protective effect on oxidative stress during ammonium chloride-induced hyperammonemia by measuring the extent of oxidative damage as well as antioxidant status. On treatment with PPEt, a significant reduction in the levels of TBARS, HP, and CD and a significant increase in the levels of SOD, CAT, GPx, and GSH in liver and kidney of ammonium chloride-induced hyperammonemic rats were observed, which clearly shows the antioxidant property of PPEt [36]. On other experiment, PPEt-administered rats experienced a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation with a simultaneous elevation in antioxidant levels, indicated that PPEt modulates these changes by reversing the oxidant-antioxidant imbalance during ammonium chloride-induced hyperammonemia and this could be due to its antihyperammonemic effect by means of detoxifying excess ammonia, urea and creatinine and antioxidant property [37].

Ethanolic extract of P. pinnata roots was found to exhibit antioxidant activity in acute ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat forebrain. The ethanolic extract (50 mg kg(-1), po for 5 days) attenuated the ischemia-reperfusion-induced increase in lipid peroxidation, SOD activity and a fall in T-SH levels. The extract also ameliorated histopathological changes and inflammatory cell infiltration in the front parietal region of the rat brain. The extract (50 mg kg (-1), po for 15 days) was also found to alleviate the long-term hypoperfusion-induced anxiety and listlessness. [38]

Karanjapin (a chalcone) and karanjachromene (a pyranoflavonoid) isolated from root bark of P. pinnata were found to possess significant antioxidant activity. This may play an important role in the pathogenesis of several diseases. [39]

Pongabiflavone (a biflavonyloxymethane), and karanjabiflavone isolated from root bark of P. pinnata were found to exhibit antioxidant, radical quenching activity which can be a key to cure Psoriasis. [40]

Toxicity

No documentation.

Clinical Data

No documentation.

Dosage

No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing

938

Figure 1: The line drawing of P. pinnata [3].

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2010 July 14; cited 2017 Mar 07]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/ild-4759.
  2. Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Volume IV M-Q. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 2012; p. 687-688.
  3. Oyen LPA. Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre In: Faridah Hanum I, van der Maesen LJG, editors. Plant resources of South-East Asia No. 11: Auxiliary plants. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher, 1997; p. 209-211.
  4. Philippine Medicinal Plants. Bani (Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre). [homepage on the Internet]. No date [updated 2016 Oct; cited 2017 Mar 07]. Available from: http://www.stuartxchange.com/Bani.html.
  5. Preedy VR, Watson RR, Patel VB. Nuts and seeds in health and disease prevention. London: Academic Press, 2011; p. 648–649.
  6. Kitagawa I, Zhang R, Hori K, Tsuchiya K, Shibuya H. Indonesian medicinal plants. II. Chemical structures of pongapinones A and B, two new phenylpropanoids from the bark of Pongamia pinnata (Papilionaceae). Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1992;40(8):2041-2043.
  7. Shameel S, Usmanghani K, Ali MS, Ahmad VU. Chemical constituents from the seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre. Pak J Pharm Sci. 1996;9(1):11-20.
  8. Simin K, Ali Z, Khaliq-Uz-Zaman SM, Ahmad VU. Structure and biological activity of a new rotenoid from Pongamia pinnata. Nat prod Lett. 2002;16(5):351-357.
  9. Yadav PP, Ahmad G, Maurya R. Furanoflavanoids from Pongmia pinnata fruits. Phytochemistry. 2004;65(4):439-443.
  10. Ahmad G, Yadav PP, Maurya R. Furanoflavonoid glycosides from Pongamia pinnata fruits. Phytochemistry. 2004;65(7):921-924.
  11. Ghosh A, Mandal S, Banerji A, Banerji J. A new biflavonyoxymethane from Pongamia pinnata. Nat Prod Commun. 2010;5(8):1213-1214.
  12. Yin H, Zhang S, Wu J. Study on flavanoids from stem bark of Pongamia pinnata. Zhong Yao Cai. 2004;27(7):493-495. Chinese.
  13. Li L, Li X, Shi C, et al. Pongamone A-E, five flavonoids from the stems of a mangrove plant, Pongamia pinnata. Phytochemistry. 2006;67(13):1347-1352.
  14. Yin H, Zhang S, Wu J, et al. Pongaflavanol: A prenylated flavanoid from Pongamia pinnata with a modified ring A. Molecules. 2006;11(10):786-791.
  15. Marzouk MS, Ibrahim MT, El-Gindi OR, Abou Bakr MS. Isoflavonoid glycosides and rotenoids from Pongamia pinnata leaves. Z Naturforsch C. 2008;63(1-2):1-7.
  16. Sajid ZI, Anwar F, Shabir G, Rasul G, Alkharfy KM, Glani AH. Antioxidant, antimicrobial properties and phenolics of different solvent extracts from bark, leaves and seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre. Molecules. 2012;17(4):3917-3932.
  17. Khare CP. Indian medicinal plants: An illustrated dictionary. USA: Springer Science & Business Media, 2007; p. 511-512.
  18. Brijesh S, Daswani PG, Tetali P, Rojatkar SR, Antia NH, Birdi TJ. Studies on Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre leaves: Understanding the mechanism(s) of action in infectious diarrhea. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2006;7(8):665-674.
  19. Elanchezhiyan M, Rajarajan S, Rajendran P, Subramanian S, Thyagarajan SP. Antiviral properties of the seed extract of an Indian medicinal plant, Pongamia pinnata, Linn., against herpes simplex viruses: In vitro studies on vero cells. J med Microbiol. 1993;38(4):262-264.
  20. Baswa M, rath CC, dash SK, Mishrab RK. Antibacterial activity of karanj (Pongamia pinnata) and neem (Azadirachta indica) seed oil: A preliminary report. Microbios. 2001;105(412):183-189.
  21. Simonsen HT, Nordskjold JB, Smitt UW, et al. In vitroscreening of Indian medicinal plants for antiplasmodial activity. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001;74(2):195-204.
  22. Badole SL, Zanwar AA, Khopade AN, Bodhankar SL. In vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity cycloart-23-ene-3ß,-25-diol (B2) isolated from Pongamia pinnata (L. Pierre). Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2011;4(11):910-916.
  23. Anbu Jeba Sunilson JS, Suraj R, Rejitha G, Anandarajagopal K, Vimala AG, Husain HA. In vitro screening of anti-lice activity of Pongamia pinnata leaves. Korean J Parasitol. 2009;47(4):377-380.
  24. Singh RK, Pandey BL. Anti-inflammatory activity of seed extracts of Pongamia pinnata in rat. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1996;40(4):355-358.
  25. Singh RK, Joshi VK, Goel RK, Gambhir SS, Acharya SB. Pharmacological actions of Pongamia pinnata seeds—A preliminary study. Indian J Exp Biol. 1996;34(12):1204-1207.
  26. Singh RK, Nath G, Acharya SB, Goel RK. Pharmacological actions of Pongamia pinnata roots in albino rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 1997;35(8):831-836.
  27. Srinivasan K, Muruganandan S, Lai J, Chandra S, Tandan SK, Prakash VR. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Pongamia pinnata leaves in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001;78(2-3):151-157.
  28. Prabha T, Dora Babu M, Priyambada S, Agrawal VK, Goel RK. Evaluation of Pongamia pinnata root extract on gastric ulcers and mucosal offensive and defensive factors in rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2003;41(4):304-310.
  29. Prabha T, Dorababu M, Goel S, et al. Effect of methanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata Linn seed on gastroduodenal ulceration and mucosal offensive and defensive factors in rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2009;47(8):649-659.
  30. Vismaya, Belaqihally SM, Rajashekhar S, Jayaram VB, Dharmesh SM, Thirumakudalu SK. Gastroprotective properties of karanjin form Karanja (Pongamia pinnata) seeds; Role as antioxidant and H, K-ATPase inhibitor. Evid Based Complement Aternat Med. 2010;2011:747246
  31. Liu KY, Zhu Y, Chen GB, et al. [Screening of effective fraction on experimental gastric ulcer from Pongamia pinnata roots]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007;32(21):2286-2288. Chinese.
  32. Srinivasan K, Muruganandan S, Lal J, et al. Antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of Pongamia pinnata leaves. Phytother Res. 2003;17(3):259-264.
  33. Shirwaikar A, Mlini S, Kumari SC. Protective effect of Pongamia pinnata flowers against cisplatin and gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2003;41(1):58-62.
  34. Carcache-Blanco EJ, Kang YH, Park EJ, et al. Constituents of thes tem bark of Pongamia pinnata with the potential to induce quinine reductase. J Nat Prod. 2003;66(9):1197-1202.
  35. Minakawa T, Toume K, Ahmed F, et al. Constituents of Pongamia pinnata isolated in a screening for activity to overcome tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-resistance. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2010;58(11):1549-1551.
  36. Essa MM, Subramanian P. Protective role of Pongamia pinnata leaf extract on tissue antioxidant status and lipid perodixation in ammonium chloride-induced hyperammonemic rats. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2006;1699:477-483.
  37. Essa MM, Subramanian P. Pongamia pinnata modulates the oxidant-antioixdant imbalance in ammonium chloride-induced hyperammonemic rats. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2006;20(3):299-303.
  38. Raghavendra M, Trigunayat A, Singh RK, Mitra S, Goel RK, Acharya SB. Effect of ethanolic extract of root of Pongamia pinnata (L) pierre on oxidative stress, behavioural and histopathological alterations induced by cerebral ischemia—Reperfusion and long-term hypoperfusion in rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2007;45(10):868-876.
  39. Ghosh A, Mandal S, Banerji A, Banerji J. A new chalcone from Pongamia pinnata and its antioxidant properties. Nat prod Commun. 2009;4(2):209-210.
  40. Ghosh A, Mandal S, Banerji A, Kar M, Hazra K, Banerji J. A novel biflavonyloxymethane from Pongamia pinnata and its radical quenching activity. Nat Prod Commun. 2011;6(5):625-626.