Articles

Breynia vitis-idaea

Breynia vitis-idaea

Family

Euphorbiaceae

Synonyms

Breynia rhamnoides (Willd.) Mull. Arg., Breynia officinalis Hemsley, Breynia microcalyx Ridley.

Vernacular Names

Malaysia Hujan panas, semomah, seruyan.
Philippines Matangulang (Tagalog), sungut-olang (Bisaya), santing (Sulu).
Thailand Kaangplaa thale, phak wan tua phu.
Vietnam C[ut] d[eet].

Geographical Distributions

From India eastward to the Philippines and southward to Peninsular Malaysia.

Description

A shrub or treelet up to 3 m tall and devoid of hairs.

The leaf is egg-shaped. The leaf size is 2.3-5.5 cm x 1.3-3.1 cm and length width ratio is 1.8-2. The base is blunt or rounded at the end as well as the apex and abruptly in a short stiff point. The margin is flat, papery, leaf stalk is 2-4 mm long, stipules are about 2 mm long. 

Staminate flowers are 1.3-1.8 mm in diametre, 3.5-5 mm long pedicel, size of sepal is 1.5-2 mm x 1.3-1.8 mm, relatively thin, greenish, lobes are about 0.3 mm long and 0.8 mm long anthers. Pistillate flowers are 1.6-5.3 mm in diameter, pedicel is 2.5-4 mm long, sepal is 1.3-2.8 mm long and greenish, lobes are 0.4-2.2 mm wide while the ovary is cylindrical about 2 mm x 1 mm and apically divided. The stigmas are about 0.2 mm long but not united and split; theypoint towards each other.

The fruit is  egg-shaped to spherical and its size is about 4.6-6.3 mm x 4.6-6.7 mm. It is sometimes a bit spiny, with narrow apical crown and red.

The seed size is 3-4.5 mm x 1.8-2.5 mm x 1.7-2.5 mm.

Ecology / Cultivation

B. vitis-idaea is usually scattered, in forest edges and clearings in evergreen forest, mangrove, swamp forest, bamboo thickets, along rivers and roads and near the beach, from sea-level up to 800 m altitude.

Line Drawing / Photograph

BOT00035

References

  1. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 12(2). 1998, Unesco.