Acetophenone, benzaldehyde, 3-methoxybenzaldehyde, benzoic acid benzyl ester, benzoic acid ethyl ester, benzoic acid methyl ester, benzoic acid propyl ester, alpha-cadinene, gamma-cadinene, alpha-cadinol, calamenene, alpha-copaene, alpha-cubebene, cubenene, cuminaldehyde, gamma-decalactone, fenchone, furaldehyde, 5-methyl furaldehyde, geranial, 6-methylhept-5-en-2-one, heptan-2-one, hexanal, linoleic acid methyl ester, alpha-muurolene, beta-muurolene, gamma-muurolene, nonan-2-one, palmitic acid methyl ester, palustrol, beta-pinene, salicylic acid benzyl ester, beta-selinene, stearic acid methyl ester, alpha-thujene, beta-caryophyllene, beta-caryophyllene oxide, humulene, alpha-humulene epoxide, caryophylline, eugenin, eugenol, eugenol acetate, fluoride, gallic acid, maslinic acid, oleanolic acid, beta-sitosterol, xylose, pthalic acid dibutyl diester, terpinen-4-ol, alpha-terpineol, beta-terpineol, 4,4-dimethyl tricyclo[6,3,3.0]trideca-8-ene-1-ol, 5,7-dihydroxy-2-methylchromone-6-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 5,7-dihydroxy-2-methylchromone-8-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside. (1) , (2) , (3) , (4) , (5) , (6) , (7) , (8) , (9) , (10) , (11) , (12) , (13) , (14)
Eugenia caryophyllata or clove is a small tree reaching 5-12 meters high, with a straight main trunk and very abundant leaves. The leaves have a very strong aromatic smell when bruised and they are oppositely arranged. The flowers are terminal corymbs. There are about 5-20 flower buds in a corymbs. (15) Cloves are used in the European medicine as an aromatic stimulant, antispasmodic, and carminative. They also used locally as medicines by the Malays. It is also used as poultices for headaches and toothaches and the tonics may be given after confinement. In addition, pounded cloves can be rubbed on the abdomen after childbirth. (16)
No standard marker has been reported. Other standard profiles have been documented in the Malaysian Herbal Monograph. (17)
Cloves can cause local skin irritation, pulmonary edema, mouth sensitivity, and sudden lower airway closure. In addition, smoking clove cigarettes can damage soft tissues and injure the airway linings. (18)
Pregnancy/ Breast Feeding
The use of this herb should be avoided in pregnant and lactating women.
Safety in young children and the elderly has not been established.
Pharmacological evaluations showed that eugenol possesses anticonvulsant (19) and anti-stress (20) properties in experimental animals. The methanolic extract of the cortex of E. caryophyllata was found to potently inhibit the prostaglandin E2 production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells (98.3 % inhibition at the test concentration of 10 µg/ml). Bioassay-guided fractionation of hexane-soluble partition produced eugenol, which exhibited a significant inhibition of PGE2 production (IC50 = 0.37 µM). In addition, eugenol suppressed the cyclooxgenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression in LPS-stimulated mouse macrophage cells. Eugenol also inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 human colon caner cells and the mRNA expression of COX-2, but not COX-1. Therefore, it is suggested that eugenol might be a plausible lead candidate for further developing a COX-2 inhibitor as an anti-inflammatory or cancer chemopreventive agent. (21) In contrast, clove oil illustrated motor impairment on rotating rods in male mice. (22)