Articles

Fimbristylis miliacea (L.) Vahl (Cyperaceae)

Synonyms

Fimbristylis littoralis Gaudich., Fimbristylis quinquangularis (Vahl) Kunth, Scirpus miliaceus, Scirpus niloticus, Trichelostylis miliacea, Isolepsis miliacea, Scirpus bengalensis Persoon.

Vernacular Names:

Malaysia: Rumput Bukit, Rumput Keladi, Rumput Tahi, Janggut Keli
English: Grass-like Fimbristylis, Lesser Fimbristylis, Grass-like Fimbry, Lesser Fimbry, Globe Fingerush, Hoorahgrass
Phillipines: Agor, Gumi, Sirau-sirau, Sirisi-buyas, Taulat, Ubod-ubod, Bungot-bungot
Indonesia: Adas-adasan, Riwit, Sunduk Welnt, Tumbaran, Babawangan, Bulu Mata Munding, Panon Munding
Thailand: Yah Nuad Maew, Yah Nuad Pladouk
Spanish: Barba de Fraile, Pajarillo, Tussia, Pelo Mico
Japanese:

Hiderike, Hideriko

Palauan: Kerngimes kederang
Dominican Republis: Pajon de Agua
Brazil: Cominho, Cabelo-de-negro, Pelunco
Taiwan: Mu-shih-tsau
Korea: Barambaneulgiji

General Information

Description

Fimbristylis miliacea (L.) Vahl belongs to the Cyperaceae family, or the sedge family. It is a widespread weed which can be found in the wild at wet areas, riverbanks and rice-fields. It is well distributed in both hemispheres, mainly in the tropical and subtropical regions. It is present in the throughout tropical Africa, to India and the rest of the Asian region, as well as in temperate regions of the Pacific. In the Asian rice belt where it is said to originate from, F. miliacea is a ubiquitous weed which is sometimes invasive. [1-5][9][11] In Malaysia, it is the most common sedge found in direct-seeded rice fields. [10]

The specie is a densely tufted annual and occasionally biennial plant. The roots are fibrous and devoid of rhizomes. [2][7] It can be characterised by its slender, flaccid stem which grows up to 90cm in height. The stem is about 0.8 to 1.2mm in diameters and broadens up at the base to approximately 5mm in diameters. The leaves are stiff and thread-like. The leaves grow to two thirds of the length of the stems but are able to grow longer than the stem. On non-flowering stems, it fans out in two rows with flattened sheaths. Each blade is about 1.5-2mm wide and is green on one side. The inflorescence is branched, around 50mm in diameters and grows to a range of 6-10cm in length. It consists of 6-50 reddish brown spikelets. Spikelets are either round or narrow acutely at the apex and are 2-5mm long for each spikelet.  The nuts or seeds are usually 0. mm in length and obovoid in shape. The colour of the seeds is range from grey to pale yellowish to white. The species fruits from summer to fall in temperate regions and all year in tropical regions. [1-7][9][11][12]

Each tree can produce around 10 000 seeds, which easily germinate once matured. Germination occurs in shallow water or in the absence of water. The seeds are known to survive ploughing in paddy fields where seedlings appear soon after rice is sown and continue to emerge throughout the entire season. As it is also a cattle-fodder, it is spread via droppings as the seeds are mostly undigested when eaten. [2][7][12]

F. miliacea is known to absorb heavy metals and can be used to remove zinc in waste water treatment. [8]

Plant Part Used

Leaves

Chemical Constituents

No documentation

Traditional Use:

In the Philippines, the leaves are used in the form of poultice for the treatment of fever. [1]

Pre-Clinical Data

Pharmacology

No documentation

Toxicities

No documentation

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation

Adverse Effects in Human:

No documentation

Use in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

No documentation

Age Limitations

No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation

Interactions

Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation

Contraindications

Contraindications

No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation

References

  1. Philippine medicinal plant. http://www.stuartxchange.org/Agor.html. Accessed on 11/12/2007
  2. PIER. Pacific Island Ecosystes at Risk http://www.hear.org/pier/species/fimbristylis_littoralis.htm. Accessed on 11/12/2007
  3. Fimbristylis miliacea in Flora of Pakistan. efloras.org. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=200026798 Accessed on 13/12/2007
  4. Fimbristylis miliacea in Flora of North of America eFloras.org.  http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=200026798 Accessed on 11/12/2007
  5. USDA Plant profiles. Fimbristylis miliacea (L.) Vahl http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=FIMI Accessed on 11/12/2007
  6. Prayoonrat P. A survey of some medicinal narrow leaf weeds in Chonburi, Thailand. http://www.scisoc.or.th/stt/30/sec_b/paper/stt30_B0012.pdf Accessed on 11/12/2007
  7. From irri.org. http://www.irri.org/irrc/weeds/Key%20to%20Weeds/html/F%20miliacea.htm. Accessed 11/12/2007
  8. Liu J, Dong Y, Xu H, Wang D and Xu J. Accumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn by 19 wetland plant species in constructed wetland. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2007; 147: 947–953.
  9. Koyama T. The Genus Fimbristylis (Cyperaceae) in Ceylon. Bot. Mag. Tokyo.1974; 87: 301-331.
  10. (L.) Vahl. to 2,4-D in the Muda area. 1996. http://www.jircas.affrc.go.jp/english/publication/newsletter/1996/no9/nl4.htm Accessed on 11/12/2007
  11. From aluka.org.Fimbristylis Littoralis gaud. http://www.aluka.org/action/showCompilationPage?doi=10.5555/AL.AP.COMPILATION.PLANT-NAME- Accessed on 11/12/2007
  12. From aluka.org. Entry for Fimbristylis Littoralis gaud. http://www.aluka.org/action/showMetadata?doi=10.5555/AL.AP.UPWTA.1_1290&pgs= Accessed on 11/12/2007
  13. Crop Protection Compendium. Fimbristylis Littoralis Gaud http://www.cabicompendium.org/NamesLists/CPC/Full/FIMBRS.htm Accessed on 11/12/2007