Citrus microcarpa

Synonyms

Citrus madurensis Lour, Fl. Cochinch., Citrus mitis Blanco Fl. Fillip., Citrus upoluensis Tanaka., Citrofortunella mitis (Blanco) Ingram & Moore., Citrofortunella microcarpa (Bunge) D.O. Wijnands.

Vernacular Names:

Malaysia: Limau Kasturi
English:  Musky Lime, Kalamudin, Kalamansi, Calamondin, Musk Lime, Philippine Lime, Panama Orange, Golden Lime
Indonesia:  Kesturi
Thailand:  Ma Mao Wan
Philippines: 

Kalamuding (Cuyonon), Aldonisis, Kalamansi, Dayap, Bugarom (Bisaya) [1]

Fiji:  Moli witiwiti
China:  Szu Kai Kat
India:  Hazara
Japan:  Shikikitsu
France:  Calamondin
Spanish:  Naranjita de San Jose
Portuguese:  Limoeiro do Japao

General Information

Description

Citrus microcarpa is actually a hybrid of mandrin and the Japanese Kumquat (Citrus japonica) and originates from China but now is commonly grown in kitchen gardens of Southeast Asia. It is a glabrous, spiny tree that can grow up to 5m high. The leaflets are elliptic to oblong-elliptic in shape measuring 4-8cm long, retuse apex and acute base. The margins are slightly crenulated and the petioles very narrowly or scarcely winged, about 1cm. long. The flowers are axillary, solitary, rarely paired, white in colour with short pedicel. The calyx is 5 toothed. The petals are elliptic-oblong, measures 12mm long. The stamens about 20 filaments that are more or less united into a tube. The fruit is globose in shape, orange in colour when ripe, measures 2-2.5cm in diameter where 6-7 celled with thin skin. [2]

Plant Part Used

Leaf, Fruit and roots [7][8][9]

Chemical Constituents

Aldehydes – acetaldehyde, decanaldehyde, nonanaldehyde, octanaldehyde, perillaldehyde

Esters – geranyl acetate and neryl acetate

Alcohols – Ethanol, linalool, methanol, terpinen-4-ol, a-terpineol

Hydrocarbons – 3-carene, limonene, myrcene, a-pinene, b-pinene, g-terpinene, terpinelene, valencene

Sugars – glucose, fructose and sucrose

Acids – Dehydroascorbic acid, ascorbic acid, and malic acid

Fatty acids - Linoleic, oleic and palmitic acids

Sesquiterpenes - hedycaryol , beta-sesquiphellandrene and alpha-eudesmol [3]

Diosmin and quercetin [4]

Synephrine [5]

Polyoxygenated flavones – 3',4',5,6,7,8-Hexamethoxyflavone; 4',5,6,7,8-pentamethoxyflavone and 3',4',5,6,7-pentamethoxyflavone [6] 

Traditional Used:

The fruit of C. microcarpa is being used in the treatment of pulmonary affections especially productive cough. It is believed to be an effective expectorant. For cough, colds and sorethroat in the Philippines a warm drink of kalamansi-ade is given, while in Malaysia the freshly squeezed juice to which is added some pepper makes an excellent expectorant. [7][8] 

The juice from the fruit of C. microcarpa is applied directly on freckles to help lighten the spots. The same is used to treat acne vugaris and pruritus vulvae. The cut fruit is applied over insect bites to relieve itching and irritation. The rural population of Malaysia sometime use the juice of the fruit together with the saponaceous bark of Entada phaeseoloides as a shampoo to relieve itching and promote hair growth. To treat abscesses they sometimes make a poultice using pandanus leaves, salt and juice of C. microcarpa. [8] 

It has been used to treat hypertension and diabetes (leaf decoction), to ally nausea and fainting (by squeezing the rind near the nostril to inhale). [7][9][10] When slightly diluted and warmed the juice of the fruit being given to facilitate the passage of stools. The Indian community uses this plant to treat scabies. The roots forms part of the potherb prepared to be given to women during childbirth. [8][9] 

Pre-Clinical Data

Pharmacology

Antimicrobial activity

A cream formulated using extracts of fruit waste of C. microcarpa was made and tested against Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Candida albicans. The cream was found to be active in inhibiting the growth of these fungi. A scratch and patch test on guinea did not produce any irritation. [11] 

Adrenergic activity 

The drug synephrine had been isolated from the C. microcarpa wastes and leaves. Preliminary biological studies revealed that synephrine can inhibit the contraction of rat uterus previously injected with acetylcholine. Toxicity test LD50 in mice of the aqueous extract showed a median lethal dose of 23.8716 -+ 0.88g/kg. [5]  

Toxicities

No documentation

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation

Adverse Effects in Human:

No documentation

Used in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

No documentation

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation

Geriatrics

No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation

Interactions

Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation

Contraindications

Contraindications

No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation

Read more

  1) Cultivation

References

  1. F.E. James. A generation later: household strategies and economic change in the rural. Manila: Ateneo de Manila; 2000.61.
  2. E.A. Alberto. Handbook on trees. Quezon City:Rex Book Store; 2004.150.
  3. I. Jantan, A.S. Ahmad, A.R. Ahmad, N.A.M.A. Ali. Chemical composition of some citrus oils from Malaysia.Journal of essential oil research.Nov-Dec 1996;8(6).627-632.
  4. W. Yuan-Chuen, C. Yueh-Chueh and H. Hsing-Wen. The flavonoid, carotenoid and pectin content in peels of citrus cultivated in Taiwan. Food Chemistry. 1Jan2008;106(1):277-284.
  5. A.V. Briones, Y. Sashida, M. Nonato, T.A. Bonifacio, M.A. Villanueva, F.M. Sison, B.C. Rabang, Y.C. Paras, R.R. Estrella, C.P. Gayomali. Synephrine: an adrenergic drug from calamansi wastes. Philippine Journal of Science (Philippines).Oct-Dec1995;124(4):311-325.
  6. O.N.C. Myrna, A.B. Elizabeth, G.M. Manuel, E.S. Philip. Determination of volatile flavor components, sugars, and ascorbic, dehydroascorbic, and other organic acids in calamondin (Citrus mitis Blanco). J. Agric. Food Chem.1992;40 (12):2464–2466.
  7. Philippine Medical Plants. Kalamansi. [Online]. Available from: http://www.stuartxchange.org/Kalamansi.html. [Accessed on 2nd December 2009].
  8. Fruits of Warm Climates. Calamondin.[Online]. Available from: http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/calamondin.html.[Accessed on 2nd December 2009].
  9. P.A. Batugal, J. Kanniah, L. Sy, J.T. Oliver. Medicinal Plants Research in Asia - Volume I: The Framework and Project Workplan. Serdang: IPGRI APO; 2004.161.
  10. Prosea herbal. Techno-Catalog .[Online]. Available from: http://www.pcarrd.dost.gov.ph/prosea/proseaherbal/calamansi_doc.htm. [Accessed on 2nd December 2009].
  11. B.G. Socorro. Preformulation, Quality Control In Vitro and Preclinical Studies of an Antifuncal Cream from the Fruit Pulp Extract of Citrus microcarpa Bunge (Rutaceae). Emilio Aguinaldo College Research Bulletin.2007;6(1):27-36.