Nepeta indica L., Anisomeles ovata R.Br
|Malaysia||Kabling-lalake (Tag.); kabling-parang (Tag.); lilitan (Ilk.); litalit (Ilk.); sauang-sauang (Mbo.); subusuba (Ilk.); talingharap (Tag.); kabling-gubat, balbas-pusa, kabling-gubat, kabling-kabayo, kabling-lalake, fang feng cao (flowering shrub)|
Anisomeles indica (Lamiaceae) is a camphor-scented perennial woody shrub. It was found growing wild along borders of settled areas at low and medium altitudes in Southeast Asia including India, China, Vietnam, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand and Indonesia, as well as Australia. It is erect about 1-2 m in height, with a 4-angled, pubescent stem. The leaves are thin; ovate 3-12 cm long; long-stalked and pointed at the tip with round-toothed margins. It has numerous, crowded and almost stalk-less flowers and occur in spike-like racemes 5-25 cm long and 2-3 cm in diametre. The calyx is about 6 mm long, hairy and pointed-toothed; the tube is long and bell-shaped. The corolla is purplish, 10 -12 cm long, strongly zygomorphic, the upper lip being oblong-ovate and the lower lip have two middle lobes (1).
Plant Part Used
Anisomelic acid (terpenoid), ovatodiolide (terpenoid), 4,7-oxycycloanisomelic acid (terpenoid), iso-ovatodiolide, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, flavones, and apigenin and yields an essential oil.
7-methoxy-3 ,4 ,5,6-tetrahydroxyflavone, methylgallate, methylgallate, 7-O- -d-glucuronide methyl ester, apigenin 7-O-glucuronide, desrhamnosylverbascoside, cistanoside F, betonyoside A, campneoside II, acteoside and isoacteoside (6).
It possesses carminative, astringent and tonic properties. The dried or fresh material (9-15 g) was used as a wash for external afflictions, eczema, pruritis and skin problems such as snakebites. The leaves were chewed for toothaches. It has been used in rheumatism, cold, fevers, abdominal pain, intermittent fever, and dyspepsia (2). The plant is burned to act as a mosquito-repellent. A decoction from the aerial parts of the plant is used in Sri Langka as an analgesic (3).
In China and India, Anisomeles Indica is used to treat gastric dysfunction, inflammatory disorders, and hypertension (9). A decoction from the pre-flowering stage leaves and stems shown to has anti-histamine, free radical scavenging, membrane stabilizing, and cyclooxygenase-I inhibitory activities (6).
The cytoprothic effects of HIV-1 infection was inhibited by ovatodiolide over a modest concentration range with EC50 of 0.10 μg/mL and IC50 of 1.20 μg/mL with maximum cellular protection of 80–90%. Ovatodiolide was completely cytotoxic to the host cells at 5.0–6.0 μg/mL. The anti-HIV activity of ovatodiolide was compared to that of AZT, a known anti-HIV drug which showed an EC50 of 0.0037 μg/mL (2).
Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity
The ethanol (95%) extracts of the leaf and stem of Anisomeles indica showed strong anti-H. pylori activities with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 2.56 to 5.12 mg/mL against 3 strains of H. pylori (4).
The leaves and stems of pre-flowering and flowering Anisomeles indica were extracted with water and tested for analgesic and anti-hyperalgesic activities with aspirin as the control compound (3). Testing for analgesic activity was conducted in male and female rats using the hot plate and the tail flick techniques. While testing for antihyperalgesic activity was conducted in male rats which were injected with 1% carrageenan suspension and the reaction time assessed using the hot plate technique. The extract from pre-flowering plant showed a dose-dependent analgesic effect up to 6 h of treatment in both tests. The analgesic effect of the pre-flowering plant extract was not affected by the gender nor by the stage of the estrous cycle and was not abolished by naloxone. This extract also showed a dose-dependent antihyperalgesic activity. In contrast, the extract obtained from flowering plants showed no analgesic activity at 500 mg/kg (3).
The extract from pre-flowering plants reduced the amplitude of spontaneous contractions of the isolated diestrous rat uterus and induced plasma membrane stabilization of rat erythrocytes in a dose-dependent manner, all of which suggests that the analgesic and antihyperalgesic effects are mediated by the impairment of prostaglandin synthesis through inhibition of COX-1 (3).
It was found that the diterpenoid , flavonoids and acteoside compounds of A. Indica showed anti-inflammatory properties (6). A. indica also inhibit DNA replication by inhibiting NO, TNF-α and IL-12 without affecting cell viability in a dose-dependent manner (7).
The ovatodiolide compound showed cytotoxicity effects by causing apoptosis in producing reactive oxygen species and down-regulation of FLICE inhibitory protein leading to cell cycle arrest towards oral squamous cell carcinoma (9).
Rats treated with oral doses of aqueous extracts obtained from pre-flowering plants (125, 250 & 500 mg/kg) and flowering plants (500 mg/kg) did not show any overt signs of acute toxicity or stress (5). The body weights of the rats were not altered nor were the serum activities of AST and ALT (liver marker enzymes) or serum concentration of albumin. Rats given the extract from pre-flowering plants for 30 days showed a markedly reduced serum creatinine concentration (5).
Genotoxicities and Mutagenicity Studies
Adverse Effects in Human:
Used in Certain Conditions:
Pregnancy / Breastfeeding
Neonates / Adolescents
Chronic Disease Conditions
Interactions with drugs
Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents