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Articles

Tetrameles nudiflora R. Br.

Tetrameles nudiflora R. Br.

Family

Datiscaceae

Synonyms

Tetrameles grahamiana Wight, Tetrameles horsfieldii Steud.

Vernacular Names

Malaysia Mengkundor (Peninsular).
English

Tetrameles.

Trade name

Binung.

Indonesia

Binong (Sundanese), kayu tabu (Palembang, Sumatra), winong (Javanese).

Thailand

Bueng (Northern), ka phong (Central, Peninsular), som phong (South-eastern).

Myanmar

Baing, sawbya, thitpok.

Laos Phoung, 'sa phoung.
Vietnam D[aw]ng, daoleo, thung.

Geographical Distributions

Tetrameles is monotypic and occurs from Sri Lanka and India to Burma (Myanmar), Indo-China, southern China, Thailand, northern Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra (extreme north and extreme south), Java, Sulawesi, the Lesser Sunda Islands, New Guinea and northern Australia (Queensland).

Description

Tetrameles nudiflora is a deciduous, dioecious, medium-sized to large tree that can reach up to 50 m tall. Its bole is columnar, branchless for up to 35 m, measuring up to 120(-200) cm in diametre, and often fluted or with steep buttresses that are up to 5 m high. The bark is smooth, often with blister-like prominences, sometimes hoop-marked and silvery grey to brownish. The inner bark is finely fibrous and ochreous.

The leaves are arranged spirally, simple, dentate to nearly entire, palmately veined, rounded to cordate at the base and exstipulate.

The flowers are in a terminal, fasciculate, pendent, simple or little-branched spike (male) or panicle (female). The petals are absent. The male flower is 4-merous. The sepal is with a short tube. There are 4 stamens that are inserted on the cup-shaped receptacle. The female flower is 4-5-merous where the base of sepal is connate with the ovary. The ovary is inferior and 1-locular with many ovules. The styles are opposite the sepal lobes and with a groove and oblique stigmatic apex.

The fruit is a globular capsule with an apical pore between the persistent styles. The seed is narrowly oblong. Seedling is with epigeal germination. The leafy cotyledons are emergent while the hypocotyl is elongated. All leaves are arranged spirally.

Ecology / Cultivation

Tetrameles nudiflora is found scattered but is fairly common in primary or secondary, deciduous forests up to 500(-1000) m altitude. It is restricted to regions with a more or less pronounced dry season. It is common in teak forests and prefers dry, sandy to rocky soils; in Papua New Guinea, it prefers limestone.

Line Drawing / Photograph

Tetrameles_nudiflora

References

    1. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 5(3): Timber trees: Lesser-known timbers.