Articles

Quisqualis indica

Synonyms

Quisqualis loureiri, Quisqualis grandiflora, Quisqualis pubescens, Quisqualis glabra, Quisqualis bracteata, Quisqualis villosa, Quisqualis obovata, Mekstus sinensis, Kleinia quadricolor [1] [2]

Vernacular Names:

Malaysia

Wudani, Akar Dani

English Rangoon Creeper; Chinese Honey-suckle
Indonesia

Ceguk, Wudani, Akar Dani

Thailand

Lep mue nang

Philippines

Kasumbal, Balitadham, Tagolon, Tartarau

India

Rangoon ki bel (Hindi); Ranganbel (Bengali); Irangummali (Tamil); Rangunu malli chettu (Telagu)

China

Shi Tsjun-tsi

German

Indische Fadenrohre [3]

General Information

Description

Quisqualis indica is a large climbing shrub of the Combretaceae family. The young shoots are very downy. The leaves are subopposite, short-petioled, from round-oval to oblong-cordate, entire, villous, their points triangular and acute. The stipules are absent while the spikes are terminal and axillary, villous. The flowers are numerous, opposite and alternate. The bractes solitary, one-flowered, rhomboidal, villous, ciliate. The calyx is tube and filiform, widening just below the 5-cleft hairy mouth. The petals 5 in number, oblong-lanceolar in shape, inserted on the mouth of the tube of the calyx, very hairy. The filaments are short in length, in two alternate rows round the mouth of the tue of the calyx: anthers oblong, incumbent. The germen inferior, oblong in shape. The ovula generally 4 in number attached to the top of the cell. The style united with the tube of the calyx until it reaches the stamens, where it parts, ending in a large 3-sided stigma even with the anthers. The fruit is about the sixe of a filber and five-cornered.

Plant Part Used

Leaves, seeds. [4] [8]

Chemical Constituents

1-desgalloyleugeniin; 1,6-di-O-galloyl-b-D-glucose; 2,3-di-o-galloyl-D-glucose; 2,3-(S)-HHDP-D-glucose; 2,3-(S)-HHDP-4-O-galloyl-D-glucose;2,3-(S)-HHDP-6-O-galloyl-D-glucose;2,3-(S)-HHDP-4,6-di-O-galloyl-D-glucose; 25-O-acetyl-23,24-dihydro-cucurbitacin F; 3,4-di-O-galloyl-D-glucose; 4,6-di-o-galloyl-D-glucose; 5-desgalloylstachyurin; 6-O-galloyl-D-glucose; arachidic acid; brevifolin; carboxylic acid; castalgin; casuariin; ellagic acid; eugeniin; flavofallonic acid; gallic acid; L-asparagine; L-proline; linoleic acid; oleic acid; palmitic acid; pedunculagin; pelargonidin-3-glucoside; punicalagin; punicalin; pyridine; quisqualic acid; rutin; stearic acid; trigonelline [7]

Traditional Used:

The seeds of Q. indica is used in the treatment of round worms by an electuary made of 4 – 5 seed crushed and mixed with honey. The ripe seeds roasted is a remedy for diarrhea while the leaves in a compound decoction is an antiflatulent.[4]

In Nepal, pieces of the plant is boiled and the decoction is given for cough and cold. The roasted ripe seeds if given for fever.[4]

Paste of the leaves are applied to the temple for headache[8]

Pre-Clinical Data

Pharmacology

Neuromuscular junction excitant activity

Quisqualic acid is an amino acid obtained from the seeds of Q. indica. Studies on effects on the neuromuscular junction of crayfish. They found that quisqualic acid could induce desensitization of the receptor to I-glutamic acid.[9]

Cytotoxic activity

In a screening activity for active anticancer compounds derived from traditional Chinese medicine and Chinese material medica, Studies reported that 25-O-acetyl-23,24-dihydro-cucurbitacin F from Q. indica showed significant cytotoxic activity.[10]

Toxicities

Mildly toxic, side-effects such as nausea, vomiting and belching (toasting the herb decreases its toxicity), ocassionally allergic reaction with skin rashes with or without itching, painful swelling of ankles, increase in body temperature. Overdose: headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, sweating, cold limbs leading to seizures, drop in blood.[5]

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation

Adverse Effects in Human:

No documentation

Used in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

No documentation

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation

Geriatrics

No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation

Interactions

Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation

Contraindications

Contraindications

No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation

References

  1. Merril: Loureiro’s “Flora Cochinchinensis” Transactions, American Philosophical Society (vol. 24, Part 2, 1935-June) American Philosophical Society Philadelphia 1935 pg. 281
  2. Peter Hanelt Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops, Volume 2 Springer-Verlag Berlin 2001 pg. 976
  3. William Warren, Luca Invernizzi Tettoni Handy Pocket Guide to Tropical Flowers Periplus Editions (HK) Ltd. Hong Kong 2004 pg. 19
  4. K. M. Nadkarni Dr. K. M. Nadkarni's Indian materia medica: Repr, Volume 1 Popular Prakashan Private Ltd. Mumbai 2005 pg. 1046
  5. Xu Li Chinese Materia Medica: Combinations and Applications Donica Publishing Ltd. Herts  2002 pg. 309
  6. Carl-Herman Hempen  A Materia Medica for Chinese Medicine: Plants, Minerals and Animal Products Chuchill Livingstons Elservier Munich 2007 pg 868
  7. C.P, Khare Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary Springer-Verlag Berlin 2007 pg. 533
  8. N.P. Manandhar, Sanjay Manandhar Plants and People of Nepal Timber Press Inc. Portland 2002 pg 389
  9. H. Shinozaki and Shibuya Izumi A new potent excitant, quisqualic acid: Effects on crayfish neuromuscular junction Neuropharmacology July 1974 Volume 13(7): 665-672
  10. Efferth T, Kahl S, Paulus K, Adams M, Rauh R, Boechzelt H, Hao X, Kaina B, Bauer R. Phytochemistry and pharmacogenomics of natural products derived from traditional Chinese medicine and Chinese materia medica with activity against tumor cells. Mol Cancer Ther. 2008 Jan;7(1):152-61.