|English||Indian jujube, Dunks, Chinese apple, Malay jujube, Indian plum, Indian cherry, Chinese date, Jujube|
|India||Ber, Beri (Hindi); Bor, Yalaci, Elanij (Kannada); Ilanta, Lantappalam, Ilantappalam, Peruntutali (Malayalam); Badarah, Kolah, Koli (Sanskrit); Ilanati, Ilantappalam (Tamil); Gangaregu, Regu (Telagu)|
|Nepal||Bayar, Dabar, Dame, Onai (Chepang); Bayor (Majdhi); Bayer (Nepali) Bayali, Bayer (Newari); Janum(Satar); Bayar (Tamang); Bayer (Tharu); Gya-shung (Tibetan)|
|French||Ber cros chien, Liane croc chien, Jujubier|
|Sudan||Nabbag, Nabbak el fil, Nabk, Nabak, Nebbek, Siddir sidr|
|Tanzania||Mkunazi  |
Plant Part Used
Ziziphus saponins I, II, III; jujuboside A, B; p-coumarylates of alphitolic acid; betulinic acid; leucocyanidin; mauritines A – F; amphibines A – F; frangufoline; leucopelargonidin; ceanothic acid; carotene; thiamine; riboflavin; niacin; vitamin C; citric acid; malic acid; oxalic acid; oleic acid; linoleic acid; protopine; berberine
The roots of Z. mauritiana is bitter, cooling, anodyne and tonic; the bark is astringent, constipatin and tonic while the leaves are bitter, cooling, astringent, anthelminthic, diaphoretic and antipyretic. The fruits are sweet, cooling, anodyne, purgative, mucilaginous, pectoral, styptic, aphrodisiac, invigorating, depurative, appetiser and tonic while the seeds are acrid, sweet, astringent, soporific and tonic.2 The roots, bark, leaves and seeds are used by different African societies to treat gastrointestinal disorders. The astringent properties of these parts make them suitable in the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery and mouth ulcers. The roots are also drastic purgatives. The juice of the roots in a dose of 2 teaspoons daily is a remedy for indigestion and peptic ulcer in Nepal. The juice of the bark is a remedy for diarrhoea and dysentery. Juice of the leaves on the other hand is given for liver complains and diarrhoea.  
The roots of Z. mauritiana is believed to promote menstruation and in Nepal the juice is given for menstrual disorders. The seeds are used to treat abdominal pain during pregnancy. 
For infectious diseases like leprosy and scrofula, the roots are given. The leaves are given to treat gonorrhoea and for typhoid in children. The liquid made by macerating leaves in water is made use of in wound and ulcer treatment. Paste of the roots is applied to the back for lumbago.  
The leaves are considered diaphoretic and antipyretic and is used to treat fever. Chewing on the leaves will help arrest gum bleeding. Juice of the leaves is dropped into the eyes to treat conjunctivitis. The dried wood is used to fumigate hair probably as a measure for removing lice. The fruit is considered a tonic, coolant and anodyne; to this effect the pulp is given for fever. Ash of the seeds mixed with coconut oil is applied over burns scars to remove it.  
Studies found that by pre-treating of rats with aqueous extracts of the leaves of Z. mauritiana could reduce the toxic effects of alcohol on the liver. This is believed to be due to the antioxidant activities present in the leaves as evidenced by the significant reduction of ALT, AST, ALP and TP level while at the same time there was increase in catalase, glutathione preoxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase. There was also reduced morphological changes in the liver as observed on histopathological examination. This effects was presumed to be due to the presence of tannins, saponins and pheonlic compounds in the extract.
Studies also found that the fruits of Z. mauritiana also have antioxidant activities due to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds.
Aqueous extract of the leaves of Z. mauritiana was found to have significant hypoglycaemic activity when given to Wistar rats made diabetic by glucose loading and induction by injection of alloxan. The effects were comparable to those of glibenclamide. Extracts of the seeds were also found to have hypoglycaemic activity.
The seed extract of Z. mauritiana when tested against various cancer cell lines (HL-60, Molt-4, HeLa and normal cell line HGF and Ehrich Ascites carcinoma), showed marked inhibition of proliferation of HL-60 cells. There was apoptosis induction, prominent increase in Go population and DNA fragmentation in the HL-60 cells. The treatment of Ehrich Ascites carcinoma with various concentrations of the extracts showed reduction in tumour volume and viable tumour cell count and an improved haemoglobin content, RBC count and mean survival time, tumour inhibition and percentage life span. There was also enhanced antioxidant status in extract-treated animals as evidenced by the decline in levels of lipid peroxidation and increased levels of glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase.
Mishra et al studied the immunomodulatory effects of the seed extracts of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. against both humoral and cell-mediated immune response. The results showed up-regulation of cell-mediated, humoral immune respons and Th-1 mediated cytokine IFN-gamma and decline in Th-2 mediated cytokine IL-4.
Adverse Effects in Human:
Used in Certain Conditions
Pregnancy / Breastfeeding
Neonates / Adolescents
Chronic Disease Conditions
Interactions with drugs
Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents