Ziziphus mauritiana

Synonyms

Rhamnus jujube, Ziziphus jujube, Ziziphus jujube, Mansana arborea, Ziziphus sororia, Ziziphus trinervia, Ziziphus orthocantha, Ziziphus rotundata, Sarcomphalus mauritianus, Ziziphus abyssinicus  [1] [4]

Vernacular Names:

Malaysia
Bidara laut
English Indian jujube, Dunks, Chinese apple, Malay jujube, Indian plum, Indian cherry, Chinese date, Jujube
India Ber, Beri (Hindi); Bor, Yalaci, Elanij (Kannada); Ilanta, Lantappalam, Ilantappalam, Peruntutali (Malayalam); Badarah, Kolah, Koli (Sanskrit); Ilanati, Ilantappalam (Tamil); Gangaregu, Regu (Telagu)
Nepal Bayar, Dabar, Dame, Onai (Chepang); Bayor (Majdhi); Bayer (Nepali) Bayali, Bayer (Newari); Janum(Satar); Bayar (Tamang); Bayer (Tharu); Gya-shung (Tibetan)
 
French Ber cros chien, Liane croc chien, Jujubier
German Filzblattrige Jujube
Spanish Yugube afim
Arab Sidr, Nobig
Nigeria Nabag
Sudan Nabbag, Nabbak el fil, Nabk, Nabak, Nebbek, Siddir sidr
Tanzania Mkunazi [1] [4]

General Information

Description

Ziziphus mauritiana is a member of the Rhamnaceae family. It is a low much branched evergreen or semi-deciduous tree reaching up to 12 m high. It is a wide spreading shrub or small tree with thorny trunk having a diameter reaching up to 0.3 m. The leaves are simple and alternate, oblong-elliptic, ovate or suborbicular with minute serrulate or apex distinctly toothed. There are three prominent nerves.  Flowers are cream or greenish yellow, in dense clusters in leaf axil. The fruit is a drupe, oblong, globose or ovoid in shape; measuring 2-5 cm x 1-3 cm. The stone is with a single kernel.[1] [2] [3]

Plant Part Used

Roots, barks, leaves, fruit and seeds [1] [3]

Chemical Constituents

Ziziphus saponins I, II, III; jujuboside A, B; p-coumarylates of alphitolic acid; betulinic acid; leucocyanidin; mauritines A – F; amphibines A – F; frangufoline; leucopelargonidin; ceanothic acid; carotene; thiamine; riboflavin; niacin; vitamin C; citric acid; malic acid; oxalic acid; oleic acid; linoleic acid; protopine; berberine

Traditional Used:

The roots of Z. mauritiana is bitter, cooling, anodyne and tonic; the bark is astringent, constipatin and tonic while the leaves are bitter, cooling, astringent, anthelminthic, diaphoretic and antipyretic. The fruits are sweet, cooling, anodyne, purgative, mucilaginous, pectoral, styptic, aphrodisiac, invigorating, depurative, appetiser and tonic while the seeds are acrid, sweet, astringent, soporific and tonic.2 The roots, bark, leaves and seeds are used by different African societies to treat gastrointestinal disorders. The astringent properties of these parts make them suitable in the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery and mouth ulcers. The roots are also drastic purgatives. The juice of the roots in a dose of 2 teaspoons daily is a remedy for indigestion and peptic ulcer in Nepal. The juice of the bark is a remedy for diarrhoea and dysentery. Juice of the leaves on the other hand is given for liver complains and diarrhoea. [1] [3]

The roots are used to treat epilepsy and the seeds are considered a sedative. [2] [3]

The roots of Z. mauritiana is believed to promote menstruation and in Nepal the juice is given for menstrual disorders. The seeds are used to treat abdominal pain during pregnancy. [3]

For infectious diseases like leprosy and scrofula, the roots are given. The leaves are given to treat gonorrhoea and for typhoid in children. The liquid made by macerating leaves in water is made use of in wound and ulcer treatment. Paste of the roots is applied to the back for lumbago. [2] [3]

The leaves are considered diaphoretic and antipyretic and is used to treat fever. Chewing on the leaves will help arrest gum bleeding. Juice of the leaves is dropped into the eyes to treat conjunctivitis. The dried wood is used to fumigate hair probably as a measure for removing lice. The fruit is considered a tonic, coolant and anodyne; to this effect the pulp is given for fever. Ash of the seeds mixed with coconut oil is applied over burns scars to remove it. [2] [3]

Pre-Clinical Data

Pharmacology

Antioxidant activity

Studies[5] found that by pre-treating of rats with aqueous extracts of the leaves of Z. mauritiana could reduce the toxic effects of alcohol on the liver. This is believed to be due to the antioxidant activities present in the leaves as evidenced by the significant reduction of ALT, AST, ALP and TP level while at the same time there was increase in catalase, glutathione preoxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase. There was also reduced morphological changes in the liver as observed on histopathological examination. This effects was presumed to be due to the presence of tannins, saponins and pheonlic compounds in the extract.

Studies[6]also found that the fruits of Z. mauritiana also have antioxidant activities due to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds.

Antidiabetic activity

Aqueous extract of the leaves of Z. mauritiana was found to have significant hypoglycaemic activity when given to Wistar rats made diabetic by glucose loading and induction by injection of alloxan. The effects were comparable to those of glibenclamide.[7] Extracts of the seeds were also found to have hypoglycaemic activity.[8]

Anticancer activity

The seed extract of Z. mauritiana when tested against various cancer cell lines (HL-60, Molt-4, HeLa and normal cell line HGF and Ehrich Ascites carcinoma), showed marked inhibition of proliferation of HL-60 cells. There was apoptosis induction, prominent increase in Go population and DNA fragmentation in the HL-60 cells. The treatment of Ehrich Ascites carcinoma with various concentrations of the extracts showed reduction in tumour volume and viable tumour cell count and an improved haemoglobin content, RBC count and mean survival time, tumour inhibition and percentage life span. There was also enhanced antioxidant status in extract-treated animals as evidenced by the decline in levels of lipid peroxidation and increased levels of glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase.[8]

Immunomodulatory activity

Mishra et al[8] studied the immunomodulatory effects of the seed extracts of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. against both humoral and cell-mediated immune response. The results showed up-regulation of cell-mediated, humoral immune respons and Th-1 mediated cytokine IFN-gamma and decline in Th-2 mediated cytokine IL-4.

Toxicities

No documentation

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation

Adverse Effects in Human:

No documentation

Used in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

No documentation

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation

Geriatrics

No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation

Interactions

Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation

Contraindications

Contraindications

No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation

References

    1. F.E.M Booth, G.E. Wickens Non-timber Uses of Selected Arid Zone Trees and Shrubs of Africa FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization Rome 1988 pg.164 – 167
    2. P.K.Warrier, V.P.K. Nambiar, C. Ramankutty, R. Vasudevan Nair Indian Medicinal Plants: A Compendium of 500 Species, Volume 5 Orient Longman Pvt. Ltd. Hyderabad 1996 pg. 439
    3. N.P. Manandhar, Sanjay Manandhar Plants and People of Nepal Timber Press Inc. Portland 2002 pg. 486
    4. Peter Hanelt Mansfeld’s Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops Volume 5 Springer- Verlag Berlin 2001 pg 1147
    5. Dahiru D, Obidoa O. Evaluation of the antioxidant effects of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Leaf extracts against chronic ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in rat liver. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2007 Oct 27;5(1):39-45.
    6. Lamien-Meda A, Lamien CE, Compaoré MM, Meda RN, Kiendrebeogo M, Zeba B, Millogo JF, Nacoulma OG. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of fourteen wild edible fruits from Burkina Faso. Molecules. 2008 Mar 6;13(3):581-94.
    7. Cisse A, Ndiaye A, Lopez-Sall P, Seck F, Faye B, Faye B. [Antidiabetic activity of Zizyphus mauritiana Lam (Rhamnaceae)] Dakar Med. 2000;45(2):105-7.
    8. Bhatia A, Mishra T Hypoglycemic activity of Ziziphus mauritiana aqueous ethanol seed extract in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Pharm Biol. 2010 Jun;48(6):604-10.