Breynia racemosa (Blume) Müll.Arg.

Last updated: 21 April 2015

Scientific Name

Breynia racemosa (Blume) Müll.Arg.


Breynia acuminata (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg., Breynia reclinata (Roxb.) Hook.f., Melanthesa acuminata Müll.Arg., Melanthesa racemosa Blume, Melanthesa reclinata (Roxb.) Müll.Arg., Melanthesopsis fruticosa Müll.Arg., Melanthesopsis lucens Müll.Arg., Phyllanthus racemifer Steud., Phyllanthus reclinatus Roxb., Phyllanthus rhamnoides Bojer ex Müll.Arg. [Invalid] [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Pokok hujan panas, janggi padang, saga, ambin buah, ambin kera, pokok sembur, perengat, akar ceras, akar bunga, asing-asing, kemancong, lortan aji, bungau [2]
Indonesia Sitopu (Sumatran); chechermean, katuk alas, imer, gimer (Javanese) [2]
Thailand Kangpla [3]
Philippines Matang-ulang (Tagalog); karmai (Iloko) [3]
Papua New Guinea Musmus (Taskul, New Hanover) [3].

Geographical Distributions

Breynia racemosa can be found in Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Java, Sumbawa, Timor, Borneo, the Philippines and New Guinea. [3]

Botanical Description

B. racemosa comes from the family of Euphorbiaceae. It is a scandent shrub or tree that can reach up to 9 m tall and it is smooth. [3]

The leaves are ovate, measuring 1.9-2.9 cm x 1.2-1.7 cm, 1.6-1.7 of length width ratio, rounded base, obtuse apex, mucronulate, recurved margin, coriaceous, with measure 1.5-2 mm long petiole while stipules are measure about 1.3 mm long. [3]

The staminate flowers are unknown. The pistillate flowers are measure 1.7-3.5 mm in diametre and with measuring 0.5-1.8 mm long pedicel. The sepal is measure 1-1.8 mm long and with measuring 0.7-1 mm wide lobes. The ovary is obconical in shape that measure about 1.3 mm in diameter . It is apically lobed, measure about 0.2 mm long stigmas, not united, not split and pointing towards each other. [3]

The fruit is spherical flattened, measuring about 5 mm x 5.8 mm, sometimes a bit spiny, with narrow apical crown and red in colour. [3]

The seed is orange and measures about 4 mm x 2.3 mm x 2.3 mm. [3]


B. racemosa is found in scrub, forest edges and along paths near beach forest, from sea-level up to 2500 m altitude. [3]

Chemical Constituent

No documentation

Plant Part Used

No documentation

Traditional Use

No documentation

Preclinical Data

No documentation

Clinical Data

No documentation


No documentation

Poisonous Management

No documentation

Line drawing


Figure 1: The line drawing of B. racemosa (Blume) Müll.Arg. [3]


  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Breynia racemosa (Blume) Müll.Arg.[homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 23; cited 2015 Apr 22]. Available from:
  2. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute Medical Research. Compendium of Medicinal Plants Used in Malaysia. Volume 1. Kuala Lumpur: HMRC IMR; 2002. p.119.
  3. Van Welzen PC. Breynia racemosa (Blume) Müll. Arg. In: Van Valkenburg JLCH, Bunyapraphatsara N, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 12(2): Medicinal and poisonous plants 2. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher, 2001; p. 122.