Canarium vulgare Leenh.

Last updated: 23 April 2015

Scientific Name

Canarium vulgare Leenh.


No documentation

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Pokok kenari, rata kukana (Peninsular) [1]
English Java almond [1], chinese olive, kenari nut, kenari nut tree, pili nut [2]
Indonesia Kanari (General); ki tuwak (Java); jal (Ambon) [1]
France Amande de Java [1].

Geographical Distributions

Canarium vulgare can be found around the Kangean and Bawean Islands, the Lesser Sunda Islands, Sulawesi, the Moluccas and New Guinea. It is possibly naturalised elsewhere in the Malesian region and planted throughout the tropics for its fruits. [1]

Botanical Description

C. vulgare comes from the family of Burseraceae. It is a large tree measuring up to 45 m tall. [1]

The bole is often gnarled in cultivated specimens. It is branchless for up to measure 20 m, measuring up to 70 cm in diametre and up to measure 3 m high buttresses. The bark surface is pale grayish in colour  while the inner bark exudes clear or whitish resin. The stipules are caducous, inserted at the leaf axil and oblong. [1]

The leaves are with (5-)9-11 leaflets. The leaflets are gradually to distinctly long-acuminate at the apex, entire margin, smooth and with 12-15 pairs of secondary veins which are slightly prominent below. [1]

The inflorescence is terminal and broadly paniculate. The male flowers are measure 5 mm long while the female ones are 6-7(-12) mm long. The stamens are 6. [1]

The fruit is ovoid in shape, circular to slightly trigonous in cross-section, with a size of measuring 35-50 mm x 15-30 mm and it is smooth. [1]


C. vulgare occurs locally gregariously in primary forest on limestone, up to 1200 m altitude. The density of the wood is 480-680 kg/m3 at 15% moisture content. [1]

Chemical Constituent

No documentation

Plant Part Used

No documentation

Traditional Use

No documentation

Preclinical Data

No documentation

Clinical Data

No documentation


No documentation

Poisonous Management

No documentation

Line drawing


Figure 1: The line drawing of C. vulgare Leenh. [1]


  1. Canarium vulgare Leenh. In: Lemmens RHMJ, Soerianegara I, Wong WC, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No.5(2): Timber trees: Minor Commercial Timbers. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers; 1995.
  2. Umberto Q. CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants: Common Names, Scientific Names, Eponyms, Synonyms, and Etymology (5 Volume Set). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2012. p. 772.