Endospermum diadenum (Miq.) Airy Shaw

Last updated: 27 May 2015

Scientific Name

Endospermum diadenum (Miq.) Airy Shaw


Endospermum beccarianum Pax & K.Hoffm., Endospermum borneense Benth. ex Müll.Arg., Endospermum malaccense Benth. ex Müll.Arg., Endospermum malayanum (Pax & K.Hoffm.) Chatterjee, Endospermum ovalifolium Pax & K.Hoffm., Mallotus diadenus (Miq.) Müll.Arg., Melanolepis diadena Miq., Rottlera diadena (Miq.) Scheff. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Membulan (Peninsular); terbulan (Sarawak); sendok (Sabah) [2]
Indonesia Madang tapak kudu (Western Sumatra); kayu labuh (Palembang, Sumatra); garung (Kalimantan) [2]
Thailand Taphong (Trat); lokhao (Trang); famo (Surat Thani) [2]

Geographical Distributions

Endospermum diadenum is found in Peninsular Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo and intervening islands.[2]

This plant occurs in primary forests and particularly in secondary forests on low, undulating country or along streams and occasionally on permanently inundated sites, up to 1000 m altitude; sometimes associated with Sapium baccatum Roxb. [2]

Botanical Description

E. diadenum comes from the Euphorbiaceae family. It is a medium-sized to fairly large tree that can reach up to 35(-40) m tall. [2]

Its bole is stout, columnar, measuring up to 150 cm in diametre and with thick buttresses. The surface of the bark is smooth, becomes wrinkled to scaly in patches and grey-fawn while the inner bark is thick and cream with orange flecks. [2]

The leaves are non-peltate (sometimes peltate in saplings), obovate to broadly ovate or cordate, measuring 7-25 cm x 4-22 cm and palmately 3-9-veined. The midrib is with 3-5 pairs of lateral veins while there are 0-2 petioles with small glands at the apex. [2]

The inflorescence is long and simple while the male ones are with short side-axes. [2]

The male flowers are with 9-11 stamens while the female flowers are with 2-3-celled ovary and a stigma 1.5 mm wide. [2]


The density of the E. diadenum  wood is 300-650 kg/m3 at 12 % moisture content. [2]

Chemical Constituent

No documentation.

Plant Part Used

No documentation.

Traditional Use

No documentation.

Preclinical Data

No documentation.

Clinical Data

No documentation.


No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing


Figure 1: The line drawing of E. diadenum (Miq.) Airy Shaw [2]


  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1 Endospermum diadenum (Miq.) Airy Shaw. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 23; cited 2015 May 29] Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-67345
  2. Endospermum diadenum (Miq.) Airy Shaw In: Soerianegara I, Lemmens RHMJ, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 5(1): Timber trees; Major commercial timbers. Wageningen, Netherlands: Pudoc Scientific Publishers; 1993.