Parameria laevigata (Juss.) Moldenke

Last updated: 29 Jul 2015

Scientific Name

Parameria laevigata (Juss.) Moldenke


Aegiphila laevigata Juss., Chonemorpha densiflora (Blume) G.Don, Ecdysanthera barbata (Blume) Miq., Ecdysanthera densiflora (Blume) Miq., Ecdysanthera glandulifera (Wall. ex G.Don) A.DC., Ecdysanthera griffithii Wight, Echites barbatus (Blume) D.Dietr., Echites densiflorus Blume, Echites glanduliferus Wall. ex G.Don, Echites torosus Llanos [Illegitimate], Parameria angustior (Miq.) Boerl., Parameria barbata (Blume) K.Schum., Parameria glandulifera (Wall. ex G.Don) Benth. ex Kurz, Parameria philippinensis Radlk., Parameria pierrei Baill. [Invalid,] Parameria vulneraria Radlk., Parsonsia barbata Blume [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Akar serapat puteh, akar gerip puteh, akar serau, kayu rapat (the bark only) [2], akar putar angina [3]
English Cebu balsam, cebur balsam [4]
China Chang jie zhu [4]
Indonesia Gembor, ragen (Javanese); pegat sih (Javanese, the bark only); kayu rapet (Sundanese, the bark only); akar gerip putih (Malay) [2]; Gakeman wayit (Sumatran) [3]
Thailand Khruea khao muak (Northern); khruea suut, som lom (Central, Eastern) [2]
Philippines Tagulauai, prugtong-ahas (Tagalog) [2]; dugtung-ahas [4]
Cambodia Var ang kot [2]
Vietnam D[oox] tr[oj]ng nam [2]

Geographical Distributions

Parameria laevigata is found in India (Andaman Islands) and Southern China, throughout Burma (Myanmar), Indochina, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra, Java, the Lesser Sunda Islands, Sulawesi, Borneo and the Philippines. [2]

P. laevigata occurs in primary and secondary forests and thickets from sea level up to 1500 m altitude. [2]

Botanical Description

P. laevigata is a member of the Apocynaceae family. It is a perennial climber up to 10 m long. The branches are often with lenticels, hairless to densely covered with down or fine hairs. [2]

The leaves are opposite (rarely in whorls of 3), simple, elliptical to reverse egg-shaped, and measure 1.5-15 cm x 0.7-6.3 cm. The leaf base is obtuse to wedge-shaped while the apex is acute to caudate. The blade is papery. The stalk is 1-5 mm long with glands in its axils. [2]

The flowers are fragrant, 5-merous and radially symmetrical with egg-shaped sepals. They are hairy to hairless and measure 0.5-1.3 mm x 0.4-0.9 mm. The petals are white, lobes in bud and overlapping to the left. The stamens are completely included. The disk consists of 5 separate lobes. The ovary is superior, consisting of 2 separate carpels united into a common style. The ovules are numerous. [2]

The fruit is hairless, a paired follicle, distantly tortulose, and measure 12-32 cm x 0.4-0.7 cm. [2]

The seed is elliptical with a size ranging between 5.7-12 mm x 1.1-4 mm, brown and hirsute. [2]


No documentation.

Chemical Constituent

No documentation.

Plant Part Used

No documentation.

Traditional Use

No documentation.

Preclinical Data

No documentation.

Clinical Data

No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing


Figure 1: The line drawing of P. laevigata [2]


  1. The Plant List. Ver 1.1. Parameria laevigata (Juss.) Moldenke [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 23; cited 2015 Jul 28]. Available from:
  2. van Valkenburg JLCH. Parameria laevigata (A.L. Juss.) Moldenke In: van Valkenburg JLCH, Bunyapraphatsara N, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 12(2): Medicinal and poisonous plants 2. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher, 2001; p. 402-404.
  3. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research. Compendium of Medicinal Plants Used in Malaysia. Vol. 2 Kuala Lumpur: HMRC-IMR: 2002. p.198.
  4. Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Volume IV M-Q. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 2012. p. 423.