Vernonia arborea Buch.-Ham.

Last updated: 1 September 2015

Scientific Name

Vernonia arborea Buch.-Ham.


Conyza acuminata Wall. [Invalid], Flustula tomentosa Raf. [Illegitimate], Gymnanthemum acuminatum Steetz, Leucomeris glabra Blume ex DC. [Invalid], Leucomeris javanica Blume ex DC. [Invalid], Vernonia arborea var. arborea, Vernonia arborea var. blumeana (DC.) Koord. & Valeton, Vernonia arborea var. glabra Koord. & Valeton, Vernonia blumeana DC., Vernonia florescens Elmer, Vernonia urdanetense Elmer, Vernonia vaniotii H.Lév., Vernonia wallichii Ridl. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Gambong, menggambong (Peninsular); tapong-tapong (Sabah) [2]; Merambong bukit, berambong bukit, berambong, medang gambong, bunga champa paya, bunga champat, jangkang paya, temangau, tampang besi, hampas tebu, tetepong, kedenok [3], kayu kepialu, entepong (Sarawak) [4]
English Tree vemonia [2]
Indonesia Nangi (Bali); sembang kuwuk [2], dedek, Sembung, sembung dedek, sembung gede, sembung gilang (Javanese); Hambirung (Sundanese); Marambueng (Sumatran) [3]
Thailand Chuang, kaphuam maphrao, nuan paeng (Peninsular) [2]
Philippines Malasambong gubat (General) [2].

Geographical Distributions

Vernonia arborea is distributed from India and Sri Lanka through Indo-China and Southern China towards Thailand and throughout the Malaysian region. [2]

V. arborea is locally common in secondary forest, along roadsides and also in fields with alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeuschel). It is found from lowland to lower montane habitats up to 2200(-3000) m altitude. In the Philippines it occurs in dipterocarp forest. In mountains in East Java V. arborea is conspicuous in the succession to mixed oak-laurel forest. [2]

Botanical Description

V. arborea is comes from the family Compositae. It is an evergreen herb, shrub, climber or rarely small to medium-sized tree that can reach up to 30(-40) m tall, with its bole is up to 60(-100) cm in diametre and with short buttresses. [2]

The bark surface is becoming closely narrowly fissured or scaly, dark grey to brown. The inner bark is fibrous, pale brown to orange-brown and turning darker or purplish upon exposure. [2]

The leaves are arranged spirally, simple, entire and glandular below. [2]

The inflorescence is terminal or in the upper leaf axils, consisting of widely branched panicles of heads. The head is with 5-6 white flowers, which are much longer than the involucre. The involucre is bell-shaped. Receptacle is naked. The petal is tubular with a bell-shaped to funnel-shaped limb. The anthers are with arrowhead-shaped base. [2]

The 3-angled fruit is a ribbed, 1-seeded fruit which is flattened on two sides and rounded on the third. The pappus is hairy, usually 2- or rarely 1-seriate and it is scabrous. [2]


No documentation.

Chemical Constituent

No documentation.

Plant Part Used

No documentation.

Traditional Use

No documentation.

Preclinical Data

No documentation.

Clinical Data

No documentation.


No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing


Figure 1: The line drawing of V. arborea [2]


  1. The Plant List. Ver 1.1. Vernonia arborea Buch.-Ham. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated on 2012 Feb 11; cited 2015 Sep 4]. Available from:
  2. Vernonia arborea Buch.-Ham. In: Sosef MSM, Hong LT, Prawirohatmodjo S, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 5 (3): Timber trees: Lesser-known timbers. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher; 1998.
  3. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research.Compendium of medicinal plants used in Malaysia, Volume 2. Kuala Lumpur: HMRC IMR; 2002. p. 414.
  4. Quattrocchi U. CRC World dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms and etymology; Volume V R-Z. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 2012. Pp 721