Annona reticulata L.

Last updated: 01 Jun 2016

Scientific Name

Annona reticulata L.


Annona excelsa Kunth, Annona humboldtiana Kunth, Annona humboldtii Dunal, Annona laevis Kunth, Annona longifolia Sessé & Moc. [Illegitimate], Annona lutescens Saff., Annona primigenia Standl. & Steyerm., Annona riparia Kunth [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Nona, nona kapri, lonang [2], lonek [3]
English Custard apple, bullock's heart [2], common custard apple, sugar apple [3]
China 牛心番荔枝 (Niu xin fan li zhi) [4]
India Aninuna, anona-maram, kapri,lavali, manilanilam, nona ata, paraankiccakka, raamphal, rama sitha, ramapala, sitsphal, tam-seetapandu, vasanta [3]
Indonesia Buah nona (Malay); kanowa (Javanese); serba rabsa (Aceh) [2]
Thailand Noinang (Peninsular); noinong (Central); manong (North) [2]
Laos Khan tua lot [2]
Philippines Sarikaya (Sulu) [2]
Cambodia Mo bat, mean bat [2]
Vietnam Binh bat, qua na, mâng câu dai [2]
Dominica Kachiman [3]
France Coeur de boeuf [2].

Geographical Distributions

Annona reticulata  is native of the West Indies, but early introduced, naturalised, and often cultivated, in most tropical regions, also in Southeast Asia. [2]

Botanical Description

A. reticulata is a member of the Annonaceae family. It is an erect tree, measures up to 10 m tall and 35 cm in diametre of the trunk. [2]

The fruit is a pseudocarp, rather variable, spherical to heart-shaped, measuring 8-16 cm in diametre, yellow-brown and usually reticulated. Its flesh is cream-white with numerous seeds. [2]


A. reticulata needs a tropical climate, although it can survive light night frosts to -2(-3)°C. It is less drought-tolerant than the sugar apple and prefers a humid atmosphere. [2]

Chemical Constituent

No documentation.

Plant Part Used

Leaves, fruit, bark, root. [5][6]

Traditional Use

Decoction of the leaves helps in relieving malaria and syphillis. Tea made from the leaves of A. reticulata is used for relieving colic [6]. In the Philippines the warmed leaves is applied over the abdomen to relieve indigestion in babies and children [5].

The roots used for epilepsy. [5]

Preclinical Data


Antioxidant activity

A study of the antioxidant potentials of three most common Annona species was carried out. In this study it was proven that the leaves extracts of A. reticulata showed activities in quenching DPPH and superoxide radicals. [7]

Anticancer activity 

Acetogenins have been found to be potent cytotoxic inhibitors of the mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I of the respiratory chain). Annonaceous acetogenins are a group of compounds isolated from plants of the Annonaceae family which have potentials of being anti-neoplastic agents. A study isolated 5 annonaceous acetogenins (annoreticulin-9-one, squamone, solamin, annomonicin and rolliniastatin) with cytotoxic activities from the plant. Subsequently they isolated more acetogenins from the seeds of A. reticulata (cis-/trans-isomurisolenin, annoreticulin, annoreticulin-9-one, bullatacin, squamocin, cis-/trans-bullatacinone and cis-/trans-murisolinone. Some of these compounds showed potent cytotoxicities against Hep. 2,3,15, Hep. G2, KB and CCM2, four cancer cell-lines. They further purified annonacin from the seeds of A. reticulata and analysed its biological acitivity. They found that this compound caused cell death in various cancer cell lines. Amongst them are T24 bladder cancer cells which was inhibited at the S phase of cell division. They also observed that annonacin activated p21 in a p53-independent manner and arrested T24 cells at the G1 phase. It aslo induced Bax expression, enhanced caspase-3 activity, and acused apoptotic cell death in T24 cells. They recently purified squamocin from the seeds of A. reticulata and analysed its biological effects. Their findings indicate that squamocin was cytotoxic to all the cancer cell lines tested. In particular it arrested the T24 bladder cancer cell at the G1 phase and caused a selective cytotoxicity on S-phase-enriched T24 cells. It induced them expression of Bax and Bad pro-apoptotic genes, enhanced caspase-3 activity, cleaved the functional protein of PARP and caused cell apoptosis. [8][9][10][11]


No documentation.

Clinical Data

No documentation.


No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing



Figure 1: the line drawing of A. reticulate. [2]


  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Annona muricata L. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Apr 18; cited 2016 May 31]. Available from:
  2. Jansen PCM, Jukema J, Oyen LPA, van Lingen TG. Annona reticulata L. In: Verheij EWM, Coronel RE, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 2: Edible fruits and nuts. Wageningen, Netherlands: Pudoc, 1991; p. 316.
  3. Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Volume I A-B. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 2012; p. 311.
  4. Flora of China. Volume 19. Annona reticulata Linnaeus. [homepage on the Internet]. No date [cited 2016 Jun 09] Available from:
  5. Philippine Alternative Medicine. Anonas. Annona reticulata Linn. [homepage on the Internet] No date [updated 2015 Aug; cited 2016 Jun 1] Available from:
  6. Duke JA, DuCellier JL.  CRC handbook of alternative cash crops. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1993; p. 44.
  7. Baskar R, Rajeswari V, Kumar TS. In vitro antioxidant studies in leaves of Annona species. Indian J Exp Biol. 2007 May;45(5):480-5.
  8. Chang FR, Wu YC, Duh CY, Wang SK. Studies on the acetogenins of Formosan annonaceous plants. II. Cytotoxic acetogenins from Annona reticulata. J Nat Prod. 1993 Oct;56(10):1688-94.
  9. Chang FR, Chen JL, Chiu HF, Wu MJ, Wu YC. Acetogenins from seeds of Annona reticulata. Phytochemistry. 1998 Mar;47(6):1057-61.
  10. Yuan SS, Chang HL, Chen HW, et al. Annonacin, a mono-tetrahydrofuran acetogenin, arrests cancer cells at the G1 phase and causes cytotoxicity in a Bax- and caspase-3-related pathway. Life Sci. 2003 May 9;72(25):2853-61.
  11. Yuan SS, Chang HL, Chen HW, et al. Selective cytotoxicity of squamocin on T24 bladder cancer cells at the S-phase via a Bax-, Bad-, and caspase-3-related pathways. Life Sci. 2006 Jan 18;78(8):869-74. Epub 2005 Sep 8.