Allophylus cobbe (L.) Raeusch.

Last updated: 08 Nov 2016

Scientific Name

Allophylus cobbe (L.) Raeusch.


Allophylus serrulatus Radlk., Allophylus zimmermannianus Gilg ex Engl., Aphania neoebudica Guillaumin, Aporetica gemella DC., Cnesmocarpus excelsus Zipp. ex Blume, Diplocardia excelsa Zipp. ex Blume, Ornitrophe glabra Roxb., Ornitrophe schmidelia Pers., Ornitrophe serrata Roxb., Ornitrophe villosa Roxb., Picrodendron arboreum (Mill.) Planch., Rhus cobbe L.., Schmidelia cobbe (L.) DC., Schmidelia glabra (Roxb.) Steud., Schmidelia grossedentata Turcz., Schmidelia macrophylla Zipp. ex Span., Schmidelia obovata A.Gray, Schmidelia parviflora Zipp. ex Span., Schmidelia racemosa L., Schmidelia serrata (Roxb.) DC., Schmidelia ternata (J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.) Cambess., Usubis triphylla Burm.f. [1][2]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Chinchang, chunkil (Peninsular); kelampu (Iban, Sarawak) [3]
English Tit-berry [3]
Indonesia Cukilan (Javanese); si jangi, sicancang (Minangkabau, Sumatra) [3]
Thailand Chatong, phia fan (Northern); tosai (Northern, Central) [3]
Myanmar Zaung-gale [3]
Philippines Barotangol (General); bating-tangkaian, bignai-gubat (Filipino) [3]
Brunei Tukil-tukil [3].

Geographical Distributions

Allophylus cobbe is pantropical and occurs throughout the Malesian region. In Southeast Asia, it slightly penetrates the subtropical regions. [3]

Botanical Description

A. cobbe is a member of the Sapindaceae family. It is a monoecious or dioecious, evergreen to partly deciduous, shrub or small to medium-sized tree that can reach up to measures 25 m tall. It is sometimes a woody climber. The bole is often crooked, low branching and up to measuring 30 cm in diametre. The bark surface is smooth. The twigs are hairless to star-shaped hairy. [3]

The leaves are arranged spirally, digitate, (1-)3(-5)-foliolate and exstipulate. The leaflets are usually dentate. [3]

The inflorescence is axillary, either simple or composed of a few raceme-like thyrses but sometimes paniculate. The flowers are unisexual, zygomorphic and with 4-merous. The sepals are persistent. The petals are 2-lobed and usually bearded scale inside. There are 8 stamens while the filaments are hairy. The disk is present. The ovary is superior, deeply 2(-3)-lobed with 1 ovule per cell and 1 style. [3]

The fruit is drupaceous, usually with 1 seed, globular to obovoid in shape and it is dull orange-red in colour. [3]

The seed is without an aril. The seedling is with epigeal germination. [3]

The cotyledons are emergent and fleshy. The first pair of leaves are arranged opposite, subopposite or arranged spirally. They are usually 3-foliolate with serrate or lobed leaflets while the subsequent leaves are arranged spirally. [3]


The extreme morphological variation of A. cobbe is also reflected in its ecology. It is found in areas with everwet as well as seasonal climatic conditions, in primary or secondary forest but also in shrub vegetation, on sandy or rocky shores, in mangrove forest and freshwater swamps. The substrate varies from sand to heavy clay or peat and from granitic boulders to limestone outcrops. A. cobbe is found up to 1500(-2000) m altitude. [3]

Chemical Constituent

No documentation.

Plant Part Used

No documentation.

Traditional Use

No documentation.

Preclinical Data

No documentation.

Clinical Data

No documentation.


No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing


Figure 1: The line drawing of A. cobbe [3]


  1. Useful Tropical Plants Database. Allophylus cobbe (L.) Raeusch. [homepage on the Internet]. c2014 [updated 2016 Aug 16; cited 2016 Nov 08]. Available from:
  2. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Allophylus cobbe (L.) Raeusch. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 26; cited 2016 Nov 08]. Available from:
  3. Sosef MSM, Hong LT, Prawirohatmodjo S, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 5(3): Timber trees: Lesser-known timbers. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher; 1998.