Tetradium ruticarpum (A. Juss.) Hartley

Last updated: 17 Jun 2016

Scientific Name

Tetradium ruticarpum (A. Juss.) Hartley


Ampacus ruticarpa (A.Juss.) Kuntze, Cyclocarpus japonicus Jungh., Euodia bodinieri Dode, Euodia compacta Hand.-Mazz., Euodia hirsutifolia Hayata, Euodia officinalis Dode, Euodia rugosa Rehder & E.H. Wilson, Euodia ruticarpa (A. Juss.) Benth., Evodia baberi Rehder & E.H.Wilson, Evodia bodinieri Dode, Evodia compacta Hand.-Mazz., Evodia hirsutifolia Hayata, Evodia officinalis Dode, Evodia rugosa Rehder & E.H.Wilson, Evodia ruticarpa (A.Juss.) Hook.f. & Thomson [1]

Vernacular Name

English Medicinal evodia [2]
China Wu-chu-yu, wu zhu yu [2].

Geographical Distributions

Tetradium ruticarpum is reported distributed in China, India, Japan [2]

Botanical Description

T. ruticarpum is a member of the Rutaceae family. It is a deciduous small tree. [2]

The leaves are opposite and the leaflets winged dotted with glands. [2]

The flowers are small, white, on top of the branches, and in a corymb. [2]

The dried fruits are brown and matic, on slopes. [2]


No documentation.

Chemical Constituent

T. ruticarpum has been reported to contain alkaloids (e.g. evodiamine, rutaecarpine evocarpin), 1-methyl-2-[(4Z,7Z)-4,7-tridecadienyl]-4(1H)-quinolone, 1-methyl-2-[(6Z,9Z)-6,9-pentadecadienyl]-4(1H)-quinolone, and synephrine. [3][4][5]

Plant Part Used

No documentation.

Traditional Use

No documentation.

Preclinical Data


Anti-inflammatory activity

Evodiamine and rutaecarpine, alkaloids found in T. ruticarpum, have been reported to have anti-inflammatory activity [6]. The mechanisms include inhibition of prostaglandin E2 synthesis, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition, inhibition of iNOS expression and NF-kappaB activation. [7][8] Another laboratory study found that evodiamine inhibited NADPH oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible NO synthetase (iNOS) expression in microglial cells [9].

An in vitro study found that evodiamine and rutaecarpine may be effective for IgE-induced allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis and rhinitis. The two constituents inhibited TNF-alpha and IL-4 protein expression in cells induced by IgE-antigen complex, further supporting the use of anti-inflammatory compounds found in T. ruticarpum. [10]

Antitumor activity

Evodiamine, an alkaloid found in T. ruticarpum, exhibits antitumor activities against the human tumor cells, including multidrug-resistant tumor cells. [11] A proposed mechanism is evodiamine’s ability to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis. [12][13]

Vanilloid receptor agonistic activity

T. ruticarpum (standardized to evodiamine content) is sometimes used in weight loss supplements, commonly in a blend of ingredients to help support thermogenesis. T. ruticarpum contains synephrine, which is commonly used in weight loss supplements. [14] In laboratory animal studies, evodiamine has been reported to have vanilloid receptor agonistic activities comparable to capsaicin, increasing thermogenesis (heat loss and heat production) and dissipating food energy, preventing the accumulation of perivisceral fat and the resulting body weight increase. [15]

Gastroprotective activity

Laboratory animal studies have found that water extracts of T. ruticarpum fruit may be beneficial in gastrointestinal ulcers, supporting the traditional use of eviodia for digestive problems. The gastroprotective mechanisms maybe due to the strengthening action on gastric mucosal lining and the promotion of nitric oxide synthesis in local gastric mucosa. [16]


No documentation

Clinical Data

No documentation


No documentation

Interaction & Depletion

Interaction with drug

Use with caution in individuals taking ACE inhibitors, [17] MAO inhibitors due to the potential for MAO-B inhibition, [18] cardiac medications, including antihypertensives and antiarrhythmics [19].

Based on laboratory studies, use with caution if taking theophylline. Theophylline levels were significantly lowered when using T. ruticarpum extracts in laboratory animals. [20]

Based on pharmacology, use with caution if taking antiplatelet drugs or anticoagulants, such as aspirin or warfarin. [21]

Side effect

T. ruticarpum may have antiplatelet activity, so caution is advised in those with bleeding disorders. [21]

T. ruticarpum contains small amounts of synephrine, so use with caution in individuals with heart conditions, such as hypertension or arrhythmias. [22]


No documentation.


No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing

No documentation.


  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Tetradium ruticarpum (A. Juss.) Hartley.[homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 23; cited 2016 Jun 16] Available from:http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-2514718
  2. Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms and etymology. Volume III E-L. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 2012; p. 157.
  3. Zhao Y, Zhou X, Chen HG. Determination of dehydroevodiamine in Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth by high performance liquid chromatography and classification of the samples by using hierarchical clustering analysis. Fitoterapia. 2009;80(7):415-420.
  4. Gong X, Zhou X, Cai Z. Studies on chemical constituents of Evodia rutaecarpa. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2009;34(2):177-179.
  5. Ko HC, Chen KT, Chen CF. Chemical and biological comparisons on Evodia with two related species of different locations and conditions. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;108(2):257-263.
  6. Liu YN, Pan SL, Liao CH. Evodiamine represses hypoxia-induced inflammatory proteins expression and hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha accumulation in RAW264.7. Shock. 2009;32(3):263-269.
  7. Choi YH, Shin EM, Kim YS. Anti-inflammatory principles from the fruits of Evodia rutaecarpa and their cellular action mechanisms. Arch Pharm Res, 2006;29(4):293-297.
  8. Moon TC, Murakami M, Kudo I. A new class of COX-2 inhibitor, rutaecarpine from Evodia rutaecarpa. Inflamm Res. 1999;48(12):621-625.
  9. Ko HC, Wang YH, Liou KT. Anti-inflammatory effects and mechanisms of the ethanol extract of Evodia rutaecarpa and its bioactive components on neutrophils and microglial cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007;555(2-3):211-217.
  10. Shin YW, Bae EA, Cai XF. In vitro and in vivo antiallergic effect of the fructus of Evodia rutaecarpa and its constituents. Biol Pharm Bull. 2007;30(1):197-199.
  11. Lee TJ, Kim EJ, Kim S. Caspase-dependent and caspase-independent apoptosis induced by evodiamine in human leukemic U937 cells. Mol Cancer Ther. 2006;5(9):2398-2407.
  12. Yang ZG, Chen AQ, Liu B. Antiproliferation and apoptosis induced by evodiamine in human colorectal carcinoma cells (COLO-205). Chem Biodivers. 2009;6(6):924-933.
  13. Jiang J, Hu C. Evodiamine: A novel anti-cancer alkaloid from Evodia rutaecarpa. Molecules. 2009;14(5):1852-1859.
  14. Haaz S, Fontaine KR, Cutter G. Citrus aurantium and synephrine alkaloids in the treatment of overweight and obesity: An update.  Obes Rev. 2006;7(1):79-88.
  15. Kobayashi Y, Nakano Y, Kizaki M. Capsaicin-like anti-obese activities of evodiamine from fruits of Evodia rutaecarpa, a vanilloid receptor agonist. Planta Med. 2001;67(7):628-633
  16. Yu X, Wu DZ. [Protective effects of Evodia rutaecarpa water extract on ethanol-induced rat gastric lesions] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006;31(21):1801-1803. Chinese.
  17. Lee HS, Oh WK, Choi HC. Inhibition of angiotensin II receptor binding by quinolone alkaloids from Evodia ritaecarpa. Phytother Res. 1998;12(3):212-214.
  18. Han XH, Hong SS, Lee D. Quinolone alkaloids from evodiae fructus and their inhibitory effects on monoamine oxidase. Arch Pharm Res. 2007;30(4):397-401.
  19. Pellati F, Benvenuti S, Yoshizaki F. Development and validation of HPLC methods for the analysis of phenethylamine and indoloquinazoline alkaloids in Evodia species. J Sep Sci. 2006;29(5):641-649.
  20. Jan WC, Lin LC, Chieh-Fu-Chen. Herb-drug interaction of Evodia rutaecarpa extract on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;102(3):440-445.
  21. Sheu JR, Hung WC, Lee YM. Mechanism of inhibition of platelet aggregation by rutaecarpine, an alkaloid isolated from Evodia rutaecarpa. Eur J Pharmacol. 1996;318(2-3):469-475.
  22. Ihara S, Shimoda H, Akiho Y.  Application of capillary electrophoresis to estimate synephrine levels in Evodia fruit. Nat Med. 2003;57(5): 111-113.