Articles

Carmona retusa (Vahl) Masam.

Carmona retusa (Vahl) Masam.

Family

Boraginaceae

Synonyms

Ehretia microphylla Lamk, Ehretia buxifolia Roxb., Carmona micro­phylla (Lamk) G. Don.

Vernacular Names

Indonesia Kinangan, serut lanang (Javanese), pinaan (Madurese).
Philip­pines Putputai (Bikol), alangit (Bisaya), tsaang gubat (Tagalog).
Thailand Khoi cheen (Bangkok), chaa yeepun (Central), chaa (Chiang Mai).
Vietnam Kim li[ee]n, c[uf]m r[uj]n, b[uf]m r[uj]n.

Geographical Distributions

Car­mona is a monotypic genus. The only species of Carmona re­tusa is found from India eastward to southern China, Taiwan and Japan, and further south throughout Malesia to New Guinea and the Solo­mon Islands. It is often grown as an ornament.

Description

Carmona retusa is a shrub or much-branched small tree which can grow up to 1-4(-10) m tall. The young branches are hispid and with buds or short shoots that produce clusters of leaves and inflorescences.

The leaves are simple, arranged alternately, obo­vate to spoon-shaped, measuring 1-6(-10) cm x 0.5-2.5(-4) cm, thick, gradually narrow towards the base, toothed or crenate towards apex, with short rigid hairs and with 5 lateral veins. The petiole measures 0.1-0.5(-1) cm long but stipules are absent.

The inflorescence is in the axil of leaves or on the apex of short shoots while the flowers are in 2-6 fasci­cles or in a cyme. The flowers are actinomorphic, bisexual, (4-)5-merous and pedicelled. The sepal is 3-6 mm long, with (4-)5 linear lobes and densely hairy inside. The petal is sub-rotate, white, measures 6-9 mm in diametre, with tube about 2 mm long, widening and with spread lobes 2.5-4.5 mm long. There are (4-)5 stamens with filaments 2.5-3.5 mm long while the anthers are oblong. The ovary is supe­rior, spherical, measures about 1 mm in diametre, and with deeply bifid style 4.5-6 mm long.

The drupaceous fruit is spherical, measures 5-6 mm in diametre, red or yellow, with 1-4 seeds and it does not break up into pyrenes. The seeds have straight or slightly curved embryo and are embedded in thin albumen. Seedling is with epigeal germination. The cotyledons are leafy and green while the hypocotyl is elongated.

Ecology / Cultivation

Carmona retusa is a rare or locally common species found in open, dry, sunny habitats, such as thickets, shrub vegetation and teak forests at low and moderate elevations.

Line Drawing / Photograph

Carmona_retusa

References

  1. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No.12(1): Medicinal and poisonous plants 1.