Huang Y.P., Ma Y.S., Kuo C.L., Liao C.L., Chen P.Y., Peng S.F. et al.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences (Int. J. Mol. Sci.)
Demethoxycurcumin (DMC), a derivative of curcumin, has been shown to induce apoptotic cell death in human glioblastoma multiforme GBM 8401 cells via cell cycle arrest and induction of cell apoptosis. However, there is no report showing DMC suppresses glioblastoma multiforme cells in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the effects of DMC on GBM 8401 cells in vivo. At first, we established a luciferase-expressing stable clone named GBM 8401/luc2. Second, mice were inoculated subcutaneously with GBM 8401/luc2 cells to generate a xenograft tumor mice model. After inoculation, tumor volume reached with 110 μL phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) containing 0.1% dimethyl sulfoxide, Group II with 30 mg/kg of DMC, and Group III with 60 mg/kg of DMC. Mice from each group were given the oral treatment of DMC by gavage for 21 days. The body weight and tumor volume were recorded every 3 days. DMC significantly decreased the tumor volumes, and 60 mg/kg treatment showed a higher decrease in tumor volumes than that of 30 mg/kg, However, DMC did not affect the body weights. The photons emitted from mice tumors were detected with Xenogen IVIS imaging system, DMC at both doses decreased the total photon flux and 60 mg/kg treatment of DMC has low total photon flux than that of 30 mg/kg. The tumor volumes and weights in 60 mg/kg treatment of DMC were lower than that of 30 mg/kg. Immuno-histochemical analysis was used to measure protein expression of tumors and results showed that DMC treatment led to lightly staining with anti-Bcl-2 and -XIAP and 60 mg/kg treatment of DMC has lighter staining with anti-Bcl-2 and -XIAP than that of 30 mg/kg. The higher dose (60 mg/kg) of DMC has higher signals of cleaved-caspase-3 than that of the lower dose (30 mg/kg). Furthermore, the hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of liver tissues showed no significant difference between DMC-treated and control-groups. Overall, these observations showed that DMC suppressed tumor properties in vivo and DMC may be used against human glioblastoma multiforme in the future.